Nuclear medicine

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  • Nuclear Medicine is a fascinating application of nuclear physics. This wikibook is intended to support a basic introductory course in an early semester of an undergraduate program. It assumes that students have completed decent high school programs in maths and physics and are concurrently taking subjects in the medical sciences.

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  • It has been an honor and a privilege to chair the committee on the state of science in nuclear medicine. As a diagnostic radiologist, a clinicianscientist, and the chairperson of a large academic radiology department, I have been exposed to the many advances in nuclear medicine and have observed their clinical benefits up close. Participating in this review, however, has allowed me to step back and appreciate the magnitude of the progress that has been achieved, and the crucial role that government funding has played in it.

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  • The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine.

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  • In September 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) presented to the American people the goals of the NIH for medical research in the 21st century. Dr. Elias Zerhouni, who became director of the NIH in May 2002, had been Associate Dean for Research at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine before going to the NIH as the fi rst radiologist to head that agency. He had been trained in nuclear medicine while a resident in radiology at Hopkins.

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  • S RECENTLY AS a few years ago, many nuclear medicine physicians would have taken the position that Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine is now a static field. Similar perhaps in many ways to bone imaging, they would have suggested that all that is left to do is to make some detailed refinements of the techniques, but the big discoveries had been made. This issue and the second part of this issue of Seminars in Nuclear Medicine will certainly discredit that point of view. There are many, many new developments in this field.

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  • In an era of spectacular medical advances, it is easy to become immune to the announcement of new “breakthroughs”. This in no way lessens the remarkable achievements of diagnostic imaging over the last few years in which the field of Nuclear Medicine has shared. To the outsider the specialty of Nuclear Medicine can appear confusing and esoteric since it operates in a world of invisible radioactive emissions, nuclear decay charts and obscure elements.

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  • T HE DECISION to devote this issue to Renal Nuclear Medicine was largely stimulated by a planning committee meeting of the Radionuclides in Nephrourology group in London a little more than a year ago. At that meeting, a progress report was delivered on the consensus reports that would be presented at the Radionuclides in Nephrourology Meeting to be held in Copenhagen in May of 1998.

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  • This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable sophistication of nuclear medicine instrumentation and increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of nuclear imaging for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the pioneering work of Dr G.

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  • There is a great difference between the superficial reading of a film and the proper interpretation of a clinical scintigraphic image by an imaging specialist. Fully utilizing the clinical image, the imaging specialist evaluates both the anatomical and the physiological structure of the human body. First the specialist must appreciate the patient’s clinical problem.Working from this clinical context, he then applies his understanding of the pathophysiological basis of disease and his knowledge of how such pathology may translate into various imaging patterns.

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  • O UR GUEST editors have assumed the additional role of guest authors for this issue on the topic of Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine. They have performed equally well, clearly defining the role of pharmacological stress testing in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. This alternative to standard treadmill exercise is achieving increased application with the availability of several agents that have significantly different pharmacological actions.

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  • The last three decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the understanding and treatment of breast cancer. As a result, starting shortly before the 1990s, a persistent decrease in breast cancer mortality has been documented, primarily in the United States and in several European countries. Breast cancer, however, remains an important health problem. In this book, which is mainly dedicated to nuclear medicine, experts have thoroughly reviewed the achievements made in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of this disease.

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  • According to classical physics the particle cannot be a wave, and the wave cannot be a particle. However, Einstein, while explaining the photoelectric effect (PEE), postulated that electromagnetic radiation has a dual wave-particle nature. He used the term photon to refer to the particle of electromagnetic radiation. He proposed a simple equation to relate the energy of the photon E to the frequency n and wavelength l of electromagnetic wave.

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  • The number of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures has grown in the fi rst few years of the new century. Nuclear cardiology has diversifi ed, stimulating development of new equipment and imaging protocols. Gated myocardial perfusion imaging completed with quantifi cation is now a standard procedure. Faster computers have led to improved reconstruction techniques, higher image quality, increased patient throughput and more automated acquisition and processing protocols.

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  • Thyroid cancers are now being diagnosed at an earlier stage and treatments together with follow-up strategies are more effective. However this is not consistent throughout the world. The practice does differ considerably from country to country and region to region. Many International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Members States can benefit from the lessons learned and improve overall patient management of thyroid cancers. The IAEA has significantly enhanced the capabilities of many Member States in the field of nuclear medicine.

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  • This book was developed to provide guidance to diagnostic nuclear medicine applicants and/or licens- ees in the implementation of the U.S. Nuclear Regula- tory Commission’s (NRC’s) newly revised 10 CFR Part 35, Medical Use of Byproduct Material. This guidance is aimed at all diagnostic nuclear medicine licensees using unsealed byproduct material for uptake, dilution, excretion, and imaging and localization studies for which a written directive (i.e., a written order for the administration of byproduct material to a specific patient or human research subject) is not required.

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  • AS RECENTLY AS a few years ago, many nuclear medicine physicians would have taken the position that Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine is now a static field. Similar perhaps in many ways to bone imaging, they would have suggested that all that is left to do is to make some detailed refinements of the techniques, but the big discoveries had been made. This issue and the second part of this issue of Seminars in Nuclear Medicine will certainly discredit that point of view. There are many, many new developments in this field....

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  • Within this report, the term “equipment” has been interpreted to mean the main types of equipment used in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. This follows the precedent established in RP 91 (EC (1997b)). It is important to be aware that treatment of the whole installation is outside the scope of this report. Thus, the requirements for an acceptable physical building with shielding that will adequately protect staff, the public and patients, power supplies and ventilation have not been addressed.

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  • This work was a collaborative effort by volunteer professionals in the nuclear medicine sciences in cooperation with the staffs of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Alan H. Maurer, MD, was among those who first proposed the need for such a volume, and it was through his organizational efforts that work on the project began.

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  • The recent charges faced by two healers from Ecuador for “criminal negligence causing death and administering, trafficking in and importing into Canada a controlled substance,” (Carr: 3 November 2002, Canadian Press) have widespread implication for traditional healers. The two medicine men are currently facing lengthy court cases as a result of the death of an individual during a ceremony in the community of Wikwemikong. The case of the men from Ecuador rests in the notion of “trafficking controlled substances.

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  • Nuclear medicine technology is a fascinating subject, and anyone who has mastered it and been given the privilege to work as a technologist may justifiably be proud. Taking and passing the exam offered by the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB),or that offered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT), is the final step in reaching the status of Nuclear Medicine Technologist. These exams are both challenging and the breadth of knowledge that they cover mean that a thorough review is in order before attempting them....

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