On 23 March 1989, electrochemists M. Fleischmann and S. Pons claimed in a press conference at the University of Utah that they had achieved nuclear fusion in a tabletop chemistry experiment. Since then, evidence of fusion in what is now called low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research has grown only slightly stronger. Their hypothesis that a novel form of thermonuclear fusion was responsible for their experimental results is still unproved.
This dissertation is constructed by an overview, three chapters and the conclusion; the general knowledge of nuclear physics, astrophysics and the goals of this work are mentioned in the first chapter; the basic theory of the stellar reaction rate and the matrix method used to determine reaction rate is also mentioned in this part.
This introduction to nuclear physics provides an excellent basis for a core undergraduate course in this area. The authors show how simple models can provide an understanding of the properties of nuclei, both in their ground and excited states, and of the nature of nuclear reactions. They include chapters on nuclear fission, its application in nuclear power reactors, the role of nuclear physics in energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars.
AT THE transition to the new millennium the future of nuclear energy looks
brighter. Nuclear power plants worldwide have operated safely.
Applications for extension of reactor operating licenses in the U.S. are in
place and construction is continuing abroad.
Uses of isotopes and radiation in applications to medicine, research, and
industry continue to assure human benefit. Research and development are
active in the areas of controlled fusion, accelerator uses, isotope separation,
space exploration, and excess weapons material disposition.
One of the main missions of the Abdus Salam International Centre for
Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy, founded in 1964, is to foster the growth
of advanced studies and scientific research in developing countries. To this
end, the Centre organizes a number of schools and workshops in a variety of
physical and mathematical disciplines.
This book covers new experimental and theoretical studies that focus on the modern developments of nuclear fission, aiming at various applications in a wide range of fields and bringing together scientists working in different fields related to nuclear fission.
The bremsstrahlung beam with energy end point of 65M eV created when the e− beam with energy of 65M eV irradiated to thin wolfram target was used to irradiate to TiO2 sample in order to make the 46 Ti (γ, pn)44m,g Sc reaction. The gamma spectrum
of Sc44m,g was analyzed by the gammavision spectrometry with HPGe detector at linear accelerator laboratory in POSTECH, Korea.
The inner face of the nuclear envelope of metazoan cells is covered by a thin
lamina consisting of a one-layered network of intermediate filaments inter-connecting with a complex set of transmembrane proteins and chromatin
associating factors. The constituent proteins, the lamins, have recently gained
tremendous recognition, because mutations in the lamin A gene,
It has been reported that a human chloride intracellular channel (CLIC)
protein, CLIC4, translocates to the nucleus in response to cellular stress,
facilitated by a putative CLIC4 nuclear localization signal (NLS). The
CLIC4 NLS adopts ana-helical structure in the native CLIC4 fold.
The 20th century brought us the birth of the atomic age, with Albert
Einstein’s understanding that E = MC2 in 1905, Ernest Rutherford’s theory
of the structure of the atom in 1911, and the first sustained nuclear reaction
in Chicago in 1942. While it brought the promise of a robust use of
nuclear technologies for peaceful purposes, it also brought the reality of
nuclear weapons in 1945. Those initial weapons were large, heavy, and
complex to make and use. Moreover, only nations had nuclear weapons,
not individuals or groups.
The staphylococcal enterotoxins produced byStaphylococcus aureusare
associated with pyrogenic response in humans and primates. This study
investigates the role of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor-kappa B
(NF-jB) on enterotoxin staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 (SEC1)-induced
pyrogenic cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear
Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) self-assemble in
a simulated physiological environment (50 mmsodium phosphate buffer,
pH 7.2), generating in vitro nuclear aggregates of polyamines (ivNAPs).
These supramolecular compounds are similar in structure and molecular
mass to naturally occurring cellular nuclear aggregates of polyamines, and
they share the ability of NAPs to interact with and protect the genomic
DNA against nuclease degradation.
Hypoxia and inflammation often develop concurrently in numerous
diseases, and both hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1aand nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-jB) are key transcription factors of stress response genes.
An NF-jB inhibitor, inhibitor of NF-jBa(IjBa), was found to interact
with factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) and to be hydroxylated by FIH.
We previously demonstrated that the expression of the argininosuccinate
synthetase (ASS) gene, a key step in nitric oxide production, is stimulated
either by interleukin-1b[Brasse-Lagnel et al. (2005) Biochimie87, 403–9] or
by glutamine in Caco-2 cells [Brasse-Lagnelet al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem.278,
52504–10], through the activation of transcription factors nuclear factor-jB
and Sp1, respectively.
In a previous study we showed that natural polyamines interact in the
nuclear environment with phosphate groups to form molecular aggregates
[nuclear aggregates of polyamines (NAPs)] with estimated molecular mass
values of 8000, 4800 and 1000 Da. NAPs were found to interact with
genomic DNA, influence its conformation and interfere with the action of
Several transcription factors with the function of setting the biological
clock in vertebrates have been described. A detailed understanding of their
nucleocytolasmic transport properties may uncover novel aspects of the
regulation of the circadian rhythm. This assumption led us to perform a
systematic analysis of the nuclear import characteristics of the different
murine PER and CRY proteins, usingXenopusoocytes and HeLa cells as
A novel ATP-dependent nuclear DNA unwinding enzyme
from pea has been purified to apparent homogeneity and
characterized. This enzyme is present at extremely low
abundance and has the highest specific activity among plant
helicases. It is a heterodimer of 54 and 66 kDa polypeptides
as determined by SDS/PAGE. On gel filtration chroma-tography and glycerol gradient centrifugation it gives a
native molecular mass of 120 kDa and is named as pea
DNA helicase 120 (PDH120).
GToligomers, showingadose-dependent cytotoxic effect on
a variety of human cancer cell lines, but not on normal
human lymphocytes, recognize and form complexes with
nuclear proteins.By working with human T-lymphoblastic
CCRF-CEM cells and by using MS and SouthWestern
blotting, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha
(eEF1A) as the main nuclear protein that specifically
recognizes these oligonucleotides.Western blotting and
supershift assays confirmed the nature of this protein and
its involvement in forming a cytotoxicity-related complex
The invertebrate nuclear receptor, ultraspiracle (USP), an
ortholog of the vertebrate RXR, is typically modelled as
an orphan receptor that functions without a ligand-binding
activity. The identification of a ligand that can transcrip-tionally activate USP would provide heuristic leads to the
structure of potentially high affinity activating compounds,
with which to detect unknown regulatory pathways in
which this nuclear receptor participates.
Fenton's Reagent requires soluble Fe2+
to form OH•. This optimal reaction
occurs under relatively low pH conditions (e.g., pH of 2 to 4). pH adjustment in
the treatment area is often necessary to enable the oxidation process to proceed
efficiently. This can be accomplished by either acidifying the hydrogen peroxide or
by adding a chelating acid. Using a ferrous sulfate solution `simultaneously adjusts
aquifer pH and adds the iron catalyst needed for Fenton's Reagent.