Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Molecular Biology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành sinh học đề tài: iTriplet, a rule-based nucleic acid sequence motif finder...
Automated DNA sequencing is a core research tool used by almost every research biochemistry lab. It is used to determine the sequence of DNA, or the genetic code, that serves as the blueprint of life for every organism on Earth.
The handbook is written for mature readers with a great deal of rigorous
experience with either doing scientific research or writing scientific software.
However no specific background in computer science, statistics, or biology is
required to understand most of the chapters. In order to accommodate the
readers who wish to become professional computational biologists in the
future we also provide appendices that contain educationally sound glossaries
of terms and descriptions of major sequence analysis algorithms.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 65. Gene Therapy in Clinical Medicine
Gene Therapy in Clinical Medicine: Introduction
Gene transfer is a novel area of therapeutics in which the active agent is a nucleic acid sequence rather than a protein or small molecule. Because delivery of naked DNA or RNA to a cell is an inefficient process, most gene transfer is carried out using a vector, or gene delivery vehicle.
DNA chips are gaining increasing importance in different fields ranging from
medicine to analytical chemistry with applications in the latter in food safety
and food quality issues as well as in environmental protection. In the medical
field, DNA chips are frequently used in arrays for gene expression studies (e.g.
Soon after the first sequences of proteins and nucleic acids became available
for comparative analysis, it became apparent that they can play a key role for
reconstructing the evolution of life. The availability of the sequence of several
proteins prompted the birth of the field of molecular evolution, which aims
at both the reconstruction of the biochemical history of life and the understanding
of the mechanisms of evolution at the molecular level through the
analysis of the macromolecules of existing organisms.
Gene transfer is a novel area of therapeutics in which the active agent is a nucleic acid sequence rather than a protein or small molecule. Because delivery of naked DNA or RNA to a cell is an inefficient process, most gene transfer is carried out using a vector, or gene delivery vehicle. These vehicles have generally been engineered from viruses by deleting some or all of the viral genome and replacing it with the therapeutic gene of interest under the control of a suitable promoter (Table 65-1). ...
The transfer of genetic information from the level of the nucleic acid sequence of a
gene to the level of the amino acid sequence of a protein or to the nucleotide sequence
of RNA is termed gene expression. The entire process of gene expression in eucaryotes
includes the following steps:
Alternate DNA structures that deviate from B-form double-stranded DNA
such as G-quadruplex (G4) DNA can be formed by sequences that are
widely distributed throughout the human genome. G-quadruplex secondary
structures, formed by the stacking of planar quartets composed of four
guanines that interact by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding, can affect cellular
DNA replication and transcription, and influence genomic stability.
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Nucleic acid hybridization is a fundamental principle in molecular biology that takes advantage of the fact that the two complementary strands of nucleic acids bind, or hybridize, to one another with very high specificity. The goal of hybridization is to detect specific nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) sequences in a complex background of other sequences. This technique is used for Southern blotting, Northern blotting, and for screening libraries (see above). Further adaptation of hybridization techniques has led to the development of microarray DNA chips.
More discrete sequence alterations rely heavily on the use of the PCR, which allows rapid gene amplification and analysis. Moreover, PCR makes it possible to perform genetic testing and mutational analysis with small amounts of DNA extracted from leukocytes or even from single cells, buccal cells, or hair roots. Screening for point mutations can be performed by numerous methods (Table 62-9); most are based on the recognition of mismatches between nucleic acid duplexes, electrophoretic separation of single- or double-stranded DNA, or sequencing of DNA fragments amplified by PCR.