Nucleic acid structure

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  • After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Know the basic structures of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids; know the difference between the syn and anti conformation of nucleotides and nucleosides; know the actual structures of the 4 deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP), and the 4 ribonucleotide triphosphates (ATP, CTP, GTP, UTP). Know which ones are purines and which ones are pyrimidines. Draw all in anti conformation;...

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  • 1928, Frederick Griffith, was one of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation § 1944:Avery, MacLeod & McCarty - Strong evidence that DNA is genetic material § 1950:Chargaff - careful analysis of DNA from a wide variety of organisms.

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  • Soon after the first sequences of proteins and nucleic acids became available for comparative analysis, it became apparent that they can play a key role for reconstructing the evolution of life. The availability of the sequence of several proteins prompted the birth of the field of molecular evolution, which aims at both the reconstruction of the biochemical history of life and the understanding of the mechanisms of evolution at the molecular level through the analysis of the macromolecules of existing organisms.

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  • Chapter 23 introduce to carbohydrates and nucleic acids. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Draw and identify the structures of glucose, its anomers, and its epimers, as Fischer projections and as chair conformations; correctly name monosaccharides and disaccharides, and draw their structures from their names; predict the reactions of carbohydrates in acidic and basic solutions, and with oxidizing and reducing agents;...

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  • In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: What are the structures of the nucleotides? How are nucleotides joined together to form nucleic acids? How is information stored in nucleic acids? What are the biological functions of nucleotides and nucleic acids?

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  • After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: What are the higher-order structures of DNA and RNA, and what methodologies have allowed scientists to probe these structures and the functions that derive from them?

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  • The low affinity of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) to hybridize with DNA in the presence of a mismatch endows PNA with a high degree of discriminat-ory capacity that has been exploited in therapeutics for the selective inhibi-tion of the expression of point-mutated genes. To obtain a structural basis for this intriguing property, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on PNAÆDNA duplexes formed at the Ki-ras proto-oncogene, compri-sing the point-mutated (GAT), and the corresponding wild-type (GGT) codon 12. ...

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  • Here we study the architecture and characteristics of the broker network. We are using a particular internal structure for the events (defined in XML but currently implemented as a Java object). We assume a sophisticated matching of publishers and subscribers defined as general topic objects (defined by an XML Schema that we have designed). However these are not the central issues to be discussed here.

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  • Information about plant genetic diversity is necessary for the development of appropriate strategies in conservation biology as well as in many other applied fields. From a basic evolutionary standpoint, genetic diversity is assumed to be crucial for the evolutionary potential of a species. Research programs that aim to investigate population structure provide evolutionary insights into the demographic patterns of diverse organisms (Milligan et al., 1994).

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  • This book is intended as a companion to Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences, published in 2000.These two books are based on a course that has been given to first-year graduate students in the biological sciences at Duke University.These students typically do not have a strong background in mathematics and have not taken a course in physical chemistry. The intent of both volumes is to introduce the concepts of physical chemistry that are of particular interest to biologists with a minimum of mathematics.

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  • Tony Smith worked first as a toolmaker and draftsman while studying painting and drawing. After serving as clerk for Frank Lloyd Wright, he managed his own successful independent practice for almost two decades. By 1960, however, he turned to sculpture. Smith preferred mild steel to Cor-Ten steel. Mild steel accommodates itself more readily to welding, resulting in greater unity of the joining planes. Its less wavy texture makes it easier to manipulate into exactly level planes.

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  • The transfer of genetic information from the level of the nucleic acid sequence of a gene to the level of the amino acid sequence of a protein or to the nucleotide sequence of RNA is termed gene expression. The entire process of gene expression in eucaryotes includes the following steps:

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  • The great pace of biomolecular structure determination has provided a plethora of protein structures, but not as many structures of nucleic acids or of their complexes with proteins. The recognition of DNA and RNA molecules by proteins may produce large and relatively stable assemblies (such as the ribosome) or transient complexes (such as DNA clamps sliding through the DNA).

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  • Molecular probes are useful for both studying and controlling the functions of enzymes and other proteins. The most useful probes have high affinity for their target, along with small size and resistance to degradation. Here, we report on new surrogates for nucleic acids that fulfill these criteria.

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  • Optimized Storage for Virtualized Environments. When EMC’s IT efficiency efforts began, the majority of online IT assets resided on high-end EMC Symmetrix storage arrays (tier-1), with the balance on modular EMC CLARiiON arrays (tier-2). To reduce costs and extend the life of the existing data centers, EMC expanded their tiered structure. More cost-effective, large-capacity drives within Symmetrix and CLARiiON storage arrays were introduced over time to create online storage tiers 3 and 4, and tier-5 CLARiiON Disk Library (CDL) capacity was added for disk-based backups.

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  • The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions.

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  • Translin protein is highly conserved in eukaryotes. Human translin binds both ssDNA and RNA. Its nucleic acid binding site results from a combina-tion of basic regions in the octameric structure. We report here the first bio-chemical characterization of wild-typeDrosophila melanogaster(drosophila) translin and a chimeric translin, and present 3.5 A ˚ resolution crystal struc-tures of drosophila P168S mutant translin from two crystal forms.

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  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein R (HIV-1 Vpr) promotes nuclear entry of viral nucleic acids in nondividing cells, causes G2 cell cycle arrest and is involved in cellular differentiation and cell death. Vpr subcellular localization is as variable as its functions. It is known, that consistent with its role in nuclear transport, Vpr localizes to the nuclear envelope of human cells. Further, a reported ion channel activity of Vpr is clearly dependent on its localization in or at membranes.

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  • In this chapter we will describe the most popular techniques that molecular biologists use to investigate the structure and function of genes. Most of these start with cloned genes. Many use gel electrophoresis. Many also use labeled tracers, and many rely on nucleic acid hybridization. We have already examined gene cloning techniques. Let us continue by briefl y considering three other mainstays of molecular biology research: molecular separations including gel electrophoresis; labeled tracers; and hybridization.

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  • After completing this chapter, students will be able to draw the structure of short DNA and RNA molecules (3 to 4 nucleotides long), structure of each nucleotide must be correctly drawn, as should the phosphodiester linkage between each nucleotide; draw all nucleotides in the anti conformation; know which side is the 5’ end and which side is the 3’end; understand what is base pairing. Know how many H-bonds form between which bases;...

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