Second, we reestimate our baseline specification while adding control variables, ranging
from initial fiscal and current account balances to initial bank credit risk and household debt
levels. These could plausibly have both affected the growth forecast error and been correlated
with fiscal consolidation forecasts. Not controlling for such factors could influence the
estimated relation between fiscal consolidation forecasts and growth forecast errors. We find,
however, that our results are robust to the introduction of such controls.
The most established nationwide medical registry in Germany is the Perinatal Registry, which collects
maternal health records concerning pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome from now more than
1100 hospitals. Over the past 16 years, data collection was transformed from printed questionnaires to
digital records. A special web-based information source of the German Perinatal Registry does not
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation from the Wilkinson Microwave
Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite mission (14) is one of the main sources of data about
the early universe. Deciphering the CMB in terms of the density perturbations, gravity wave
polarization, power spectrum and its various indices is a formidable task. It also requires the
heavy CMB mathematical formalism based on General Relativity — see eg., the textbooks
Within sample schools, all students were included in the
study. Each student completed a survey and an exam, both of
which were administered in the fall of 1965. We will focus our
analysis on sixth, ninth, and twelfth graders because these stu-
dents’ birth cohorts (1948–1954) span most of the period during
which television was introduced, and because exam style and for-
mat were fairly similar across these different grades.
Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where
there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health
problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain
the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of
apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in pastoral communities of Afar.
According to the definition of herd behavior given above, herding results from
an obvious intent by investors to copy the behavior of other investors. This should
be distinguished from “spurious herding” where groups facing similar decision
problems and information sets take similar decisions. Such spurious herding is an
efficient outcome whereas “intentional” herding, as explained in Section I, need
not be efficient.
If possible, allow the solution to mix at room temperature for 24 hours. The solubility
of the compound will dictate how much goes into solution, and for some of the compounds we have
tested (e.g., nonylphenol) very little will dissolve.
Once the concentrated solution is prepared, students should prepare the following dilutions
(1:2, 1:10, and 1:100). Spring water will serve as the negative control (i.e., it should have no effect
on sponge growth).
Participatory mapping exercises began during the very first days of the survey
with two women and men groups of villagers using two basic maps, assisted by
two research members to explain the objectives of the exercise. They facilitated
the process through discussion with villagers about which resources and land
types to add to the basic maps. These maps were then put together to build a single
map representing the perception of the overall community. During all our onsite
activities, the map was available to any villager for adding features and making
In the fully watered camel thyroid activity is higher in summer than in winter, but activity
is reduced in camels deprived of water. The decline in activity is important because the
generation of metabolic heat is reduced and respiratory water losses are also reduced.
Chronic exposure to heat results in depressed thyroid activity as well as reduced plasma,
cortisol and growth hormone concentrations and turnover rates. All three sources
normally create heat and act in cooperation, so the net result of habituation to heat is
some reduction in metabolic rate (Wilson, 1998). ...
For WSP, the major
sign of success is that HWI is not frequently mentioned as a
separate project or program but that its methodology, tools,
and lessons have been adopted by institutions which will
continue to assign resources in the future.
In 2007, WSP conducted a baseline assessment in Peru of
nine dimensions considered essential to scaling up hand-
washing with soap behavior change programs.
In Istanbul we also committed ourselves to the goal
of sustainable human settlements in an urbanising
world by developing societies that will make efficient
use of resources within the carrying capacity of
ecosystems. In Norway - as in most industrialised
countries – there is an increasing awareness of the
importance of environmental protection. There are
many examples of “good practices” and environmental
By transforming the paradigm for how health develops, a life-course approach
provides a strong public policy rationale for health systemtransformation. It dem-
onstrates how disadvantage during childhood diminishes future prospects by re-
ducing a child’s health potential, which in turn directly harms educational out-
comes and future social competence and accelerates the acquisition and severity
of health problems in later years.
This approach emphasizes investments focused
on prevention, health promotion, and improving the conditions of children’s lives.
The importance of SRH to the attainment of international development goals
has not been adequately translated into action frameworks and monitoring
mechanisms at international, regional and national levels. Advances have been
hindered by the complexity of the concept. Different components of SRH fall
within the province of different sectoral ministries, challenging coordinated
national responses. Many national planners learned development economics
before the recent analytical advances on the effect of age structures on poverty
The additional material includes a new Background section, intended
to provide a broad overview of breast cancer for non-clinicians; a
new Topic 1, Primary care and the management of women at high
risk; and a new Topic 8, Management of advanced, recurrent and
metastatic disease. The topic areas and numbers therefore differ from
the original Manual.
Material in the Evidence sections of the topic areas is based on
systematic reviews of research evidence carried out by the NHS
Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.
Moving to Rome, Italy, was a dream come true for me. My family roots are based in the north of
Italy, but being anywhere in this beautiful country was an exciting prospect. My husband is a
Foreign Service Officer and works at the embassy in Rome, where I first met the Global
Employment Advisor, Loretta Dusini. I was excited to know that there was going to be someone
who could help me find meaningful work, as I had lived abroad before (Moscow, Buenos Aires,
and Prague) and being gainfully employed was not possible at that time since there...
Common side effects of the anti-tuberculosis drugs should be described to the
patient. The health care worker should also explain that if the patient experiences
any side effects during the treatment, he or she should immediately report those side
effects to the doctor or nurse.
At every encounter, health care workers can ask patients, “How are you feeling?” or
another general question such as, “Have you had any problems after taking the
drugs?” Health care workers can help patients identify and manage side effects.
Those parts and derivatives that are of the highest value due to scarcity of supply and/or high
demand are subject to counterfeiting. Because the ingredients are not commonly in trade, it is
easier for counterfeiters to convince buyers that they are the genuine articles, as they are not
often seen. In fact, the fake ingredients are much more common, so much so that they may even
be recognized as being genuine by those less experienced in traditional Asian medicine.
These damaging effects of poverty on child health
can be reduced by well designed policies. Various
options have been reviewed by some of us.
summarises approaches used in different countries to
improve health inputs and services in poor populations,
with emphasis on those related to child health. Several
different—and generally complementary—approaches
are possible. Improvement of knowledge and changing
of behaviour among poor mothers has been achieved in
many settings, in areas as diverse as handwashing for
diarrhoea prevention and nutrition counselling.
The average American consumes an estimated
50 tons of food in a lifetime. This staggering
amount of food represents the sum of daily
choices each of us makes regarding the type,
quality, and quantity of foods. These critical
choices in turn reflect a complex interplay of
many factors, including family upbringing, religious
or philosophical beliefs, as well as practical
matters, such as the cost and availability of foods
and beverages. Importantly, Americans are
increasingly selecting food for health reasons.