Nutrition during

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Optimal nutrition during the period of mechanical ventilation decreases mortality in critically ill, long-term acute female patients: a prospective observational cohort study...

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  • Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems often are quite distinct from those required for young ones. Recognition and understanding of the special nutrition problems of the aged are being intensively researched and tested, especially due to the increases in the elderly in the general population. In developed countries, economic restrictions and physical inactivity during aging can significantly reduce food intakes, contributing to nutritional stresses and needs. Many disease entities and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged.

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  • A comprehensive review essential for those preparing to take the midwifery (AMBC) or women’s health nurse practitioner certification (NCC) examinations. The Midwifery & Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner Certification Review Guide was developed for both of these nursing specialties because of the many commonalities they share that enhance the delivery of care to women during their life span.

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  • Because the field of nutrition is actively evolving and creating major new principles in the care of the pediatric patient, we have embarked on the third edition of this textbook. The editors continue to support the premise that a comprehensive text as a reference source in pediatric nutrition is essential for the proper care of infants and children. As medical care in the twenty-first century is predicated on prevention of disease, the discipline of pediatric nutrition becomes that much more important.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Part 4. Nutrition Chapter 73. Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy: Introduction The ability to provide specialized nutritional support (SNS) represents a major advance in medical therapy.

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccupation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. Occasionally, hyperemesis gravidarum requires hospitalization to prevent dehydration, and sometimes parenteral nutrition is required. Crohn's disease may be associated with exacerbations in the second and third trimesters. Ulcerative colitis is associated with disease exacerbations in the first trimester and during the early postpartum period.

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  • Physiologic Factors Growth, strenuous physical activity, pregnancy, and lactation increase needs for energy and several essential nutrients, including water. Energy needs rise during pregnancy, due to the demands of fetal growth, and during lactation, because of the increased energy required for milk production. Energy needs decrease with loss of lean body mass, the major determinant of REE. Because both health and physical activity tend to decline with age, energy needs in older persons, especially those over 70, tend to be less than those of younger persons.

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  • Protein Catabolism The rate of endogenous protein breakdown (catabolism) to supply energy needs normally falls during uncomplicated energy deprivation. After about 10 days of total starvation, the unstressed individual loses about 12–18 g/d protein (equivalent to approximately 2 oz of muscle tissue or 2–3 g of nitrogen).

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  • Anthropometrics Anthropometric measurements provide information on body muscle mass and fat reserves. The most practical and commonly used measurements are body weight, height, triceps skinfold (TSF), and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC). Body weight is one of the most useful nutritional parameters to follow in patients who are acutely or chronically ill. Unintentional weight loss during illness often reflects loss of lean body mass (muscle and organ tissue), especially if it is rapid and not caused by diuresis.

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  • Infectious Infections of the central access catheter rarely occur in the first 72 h. Fever during this period is usually from infection elsewhere or another cause. Fever that develops during PN can be addressed by checking the catheter site and, if the site looks clean, exchanging the catheter over a wire with cultures taken through the catheter and at the catheter tip. If these cultures are negative, as they are most of the time, the new catheter can continue to be used.

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  • In 1993, a small group of experts gathered at FIFA house in Zurich, Switzerland, to discuss the role of nutrition in the performance of soccer players. Their discussions, under the guidance of Professors Clyde Williams and Bjorn Ekblom, represented the state of knowledge in the field at that time, and their recommendations were widely applied throughout the game. Indeed, the suggestion that players would benefit from better access to fluids during matches led to a change in the rules relating to the provision of drinks during games.

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  • During the last decades, global organizations and women’s rights advocates have called on governments to recognise the multiple determinants of women’s health, and there has been a growing consensus about the need to integrate and widen health services to respond to a broad variety of problems affecting them.

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  • Food can be defined as the nutritive material taken into an organism for growth, work, or repair and for maintaining the vital processes. Food sustains life, and, as such, many individuals view food as an uncomplicated, pure source of nutrition. Therefore, such individuals are often bewildered to learn that food is comprised of an array of natural chemicals, and not all the chemicals are nutrients or enhance nutritive value, but in fact may decrease nutritional value or, worse still, are toxic (e.g., naturally occurring toxicants).

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  • Starting in the spring of 2009, a fast recovery in global equities and a rise in house values in many economies (the euro area and Japan are exceptions) were accompanied by a reduction in corporate bond spreads and other risk premia (Graphs II.1 and III.2, top panels), though some risk measures have meanwhile risen again in the context of the Greek sovereign debt crisis. Reported VaR figures show that risk as measured by potential losses from banks’ trading positions remains high (Graph III.2, bottom left-hand panel).

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccu- pation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy usually lead to intrauterine growth retardation, which is one of the main causes of foetal and infant undernutrition in developing countries. Every year, 30 million newborns, or 23% of 126 million births per year, are affected by intrauterine growth retardation; by contrast, in developed countries the rate is only about 2% (World Health Organization 2000a).

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  • Pediatric cardiology section enlightens us on cardiovascular changes in fetuses / infants as well as some pediatric cardiovascular surgical procedures needing skill under recent developments. Pediatric hemato-oncology section explains novel developments of well-known diseases such as neuroblastoma and thalassemias. For instance; whole genome searches and molecular basis for diagnosis of neuroblastoma are discussed. However, this section also includes some common complications of oncology e.g. fertility and fatigue seen in these patients.

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  • Beer has been a popular beverage for thousands of years and brewing is often described as the oldest biotechnological process. Over the years the brewmaster’s art has been supplemented by vast increases in our knowledge of the chemistry and biochemistry both of the ingredients and of the changes taking place to those ingredients during brewing. Together these contribute to give the products we recognise today - a wide range of different but consistently high quality beer types.

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  • When a woman is healthy, she has the energy and strength to do her daily work, to fulfill the many roles she has in her family and community, and to build satisfying relationships with others. In other words, a woman’s health affects every area of her life. Yet for many years, ‘women’s health care’ has meant little more than maternal health services such as care during pregnancy and bir th. These services are necessary, but they address women’s needs only as mothers.

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