Harrison's Internal Medicine Part 4. Nutrition Chapter 73. Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy: Introduction
The ability to provide specialized nutritional support (SNS) represents a major advance in medical therapy.
Poor nutrition is a major problem in older Americans. Inadequate
intake affects approximately 37 to 40 percent of community-dwelling individuals
over 65 years of age (Ryan et al., 1992). In addition, the vast
majority of older Americans have chronic conditions in which nutrition
interventions have been demonstrated to be effective in improving health
and quality-of-life outcomes. Eighty-seven percent of older Americans
have either diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or a combination of
these chronic diseases (NCHS, 1997).
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài:
Development of liver dysfunction under artificial nutrition: a reason to modify nutrition therapy in the intensive care unit?
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, World Health Organization)
[ 1 ] estimated an incidence of 6,617,855 cancers around the world in 2008 with 4,219,626
deaths associated with this disease (IARC 2011).
Populations on dialysis are showing a rapid worldwide increase. In developed countries,
remarkable increases in elderly patients and those with diabetes have been noted. In devel‐
oping countries, changes in life style and economic development have made hemodialysis
(HD) therapy available to many more patients. In this special issue, reviews of various as‐
pects of HD therapy were submitted from both groups. In particular, various methods for
vascular access were discussed by many contributors. From these reviews, the reader will
Disease-Specific Nutritional Support
SNS is basically a support therapy and is primary therapy only for the treatment or prevention of malnutrition. Certain conditions require modification of nutritional support because of organ or system impairment. For instance, in nitrogen accumulation disorders, protein intake may need to be reduced. However, in renal disease, except for brief periods of several days, protein intakes should approach requirement levels of at least 0.8 g/kg or higher up to 1.2 g/kg as long as the blood urea nitrogen does not exceed 100 mg/dL.
When I began research for the Nutrition Almanac in the early seventies, scientific information on health
and nutrition was scarce and difficult to find. In recent years, however, there has been a plethora of studies
and most are easier to access. The database of the National Library of Medicine, for example, lists
over 40,000 articles specifically on alternative medicine.
Alternative therapies focus on the underlying cause.
Gene therapy offers many conceptual advantages to treat muscle diseases, especially various
forms of muscular dystrophies. Many of these diseases are caused by a single gene
mutation. While the traditional approaches may ameliorate some symptoms, the ultimate
cure will depend on molecular correction of the genetic defect. The clinical feasibility of
gene therapy has been recently demonstrated in treatment of a type of inherited blindness.
By delivering a therapeutic gene to the retina, investigators were able to partially recover
the vision in a disease once thought incurable.
Chapter 2 - Detailed knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and kinesiology. This chapter presents the following content: Areas of competence, anatomical position, cavities of the body, body movements, biomechanics and kinesiology, nutrition.
The percent literate in the SEC is substantially higher than indicated for the population 60 and over in the
1998 census. This largely reflects a process of cohort succession through which persons who were 54-59
in 1998, and thus not part of the 60+ population at that time, aged into the 60 and over population by 2004
while at the same time some persons who were 60 or over in 1998 died, especially among the oldest age
groups. Since literacy was generally increasing over time in Cambodia, the average literacy level of
younger cohorts who moved into the...
Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological
systems often are quite distinct from young ones. Recognition and understanding
of the special nutrition problems of the aged are being intensively
researched and tested, especially due to the increases in the elderly in the
general population. In developed countries, economic restrictions and physical
inactivity during aging can signifi cantly reduce food intakes, contributing
to nutritional stresses and needs. Many disease entities and cancers are found
with higher frequency in the aged.
Acupuncture is growing in popularity world-wide. Since it started to be scientifically
studied in the 1970’s, acupuncture is conquering position as an efficient and safe
therapeutic method. The amount of cumulated scientific evidence is already enough to
guarantee a highly detached status for acupuncture among other complementary
therapies. In many countries, acupuncture is well integrated into the conventional
health system. This scenario would seem to be very favorable and the value of
acupuncture would thus seem well consolidated.
There was a need to bring
this information together in a single volume, as much of the key recent developments
have been dispersed throughout the biomedical literature, largely in specialized
journals. Since, as in the past, important developments in immunosuppressive
therapy in one branch of medicine (i.e. transplantation) are likely to benefit another
This uncommon type of skin cancer develops from neuroendocrine cells (hormone-making
cells that resemble nerve cells in some ways) in the skin. They are most often found on the
head, neck, and arms but can start anywhere.
These cancers are thought to be caused in part by sun exposure and in part by Merkel cell
polyomavirus (MCV). About 8 out of 10 Merkel cell carcinomas are thought to be related to
MCV infection. MCV is a common virus. Many people are infected with MCV, but it usually
causes no symptoms. In a small portion of people with this infection,...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học đề tài : Nutrition and inflammation serum biomarkers are associated with 12-week mortality among malnourished adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Zambia
The ability to provide specialized nutritional support (SNS) represents a major advance in medical therapy. Nutritional support, via either enteral or parenteral routes, is used in two main settings: (1) to provide adequate nutritional intake during the recuperative phase of illness or injury, when the patient's ability to ingest or absorb nutrients is impaired, and (2) to support the patient during the systemic response to inflammation, injury, or infection during an extended critical illness. SNS is also used in patients with permanent loss of intestinal length or function.
A representative random systematic sampling of clusters from 183 elderly people aged 65 and over was selected from the old age groups of Joaçaba, SC. Previous to the commencement of the research, workshops with the participants were conducted in order to discuss the method of performance of the interviews12. A pilot test was done to calibrate the 5 surveyors in relation to the observation of the clinical condition examined, and the (kappa) agreement test was used for these measurements until an adequate value was obtained.
The Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety(a) makes the following Regulations
in exercise of the powers conferred by Articles 16(1), 25(1)(a) and (3), 26(3) and 47(2) of the
Food Safety (Northern Ireland) Order 1991(b)
In accordance with Article 47(3A) of that Order, it has had regard to the relevant advice given by
the Food Standards Agency.
As required by Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No.
The Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding
The global strategy for infant and young child feeding describes essential actions to protect,
promote and support appropriate infant and young child feeding. It focuses on the importance of
investing in this crucial area to ensure that children grow to their full potential free from the
adverse consequences of compromised nutritional status and preventable illnesses.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Tight glucose control: should we move from intensive insulin therapy alone to modulation of insulin and nutritional inputs?