Nutritional Status Assessment Full nutritional status assessment is reserved for seriously ill patients and those at very high nutritional risk when the cause of malnutrition is still uncertain after initial clinical evaluation and dietary assessment. It involves multiple dimensions, including documentation of dietary intake, anthropometric
measurements, biochemical measurements
of blood and urine, clinical
examination, health history, and functional status. For further discussion of nutritional assessment, see Chap. 72.
Assessment of Circulating (Visceral) Proteins
The serum proteins most used to assess nutritional status include albumin, total iron-binding capacity (or transferrin), thyroxine-binding prealbumin (or transthyretin), and retinol-binding protein. Because they have differing synthesis rates and half-lives—the half-life of serum albumin is about 21 days whereas those of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein are about 2 days and 12 h, respectively—some of these proteins reflect changes in nutritional status more quickly than others.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp đề tài: Stability of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stands in the Beskid Śląski and Beskid Żywiecki Mts. from the aspect of their nutrition status...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Estimation of energy requirements for mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients using nutritional status...
T he science of human nutrition and its applications to health promotion continue to gain momentum. In
the relatively short time since the release of the first edition of this Encyclopedia, a few landmark
discoveries have had a dramatic multiplying effect over nutrition science: the mapping of the human genome,
the links between molecular bioenergetics and lifespan, the influence of nutrients on viral mutation, to name
Acute Care Settings Acute care settings, anorexia, various diseases, test procedures, and medications can compromise dietary intake. Under such circumstances, the goal is to identify and avoid inadequate intake and ensure appropriate alimentation. Dietary assessment focuses on what patients are currently eating, whether they are able and willing to eat, and whether they experience any problems with eating. Dietary intake assessment is based on information from observed intakes; medical record; history; clinical examination; and anthropometric, biochemical, and functional status.
The poor nutritional status of women in developing countries has been associated with
maternal mortality. Maternal deaths do not result from malnutrition alone, however, but
mainly from a lack of access to obstetric care and from previous conditions that may be
aggravated by poor nutrition.
It has been recognized for many years that states of nutrient deficiency are associated
with an impaired immune response and with increased susceptibility to infectious
disease. In turn, infection can affect the status of several nutrients, thus setting
up a vicious circle of under nutrition, compromised immune function and infection.
The sex distribution in SEC is reasonably close to that in the 1998 census and 2000 DHS. The 1999
Socioeconomic Survey is somewhat out of line with the other sources. Likewise, the age distribution of
older persons in the SEC is quite similar to that in the other sources. The marital status distribution in the
SES for men is also fairly similar to that found in the other three sources but not for women. The SEC
sample has relatively fewer women who are currently married and relatively more who are widowed than
indicated by the census and the...
A coffeepot that was connected to the Internet (before it was even called the Internet) and which provided information about its status (long before there was Twitter).
In 1991, researchers at Cambridge University shared a single coffeepot among several floors. The researchers were frustrated by the fact that they would often climb several flights of stairs, only to find the coffeepot empty. They set up a videocamera that broadcast a still image to their desktops about three times per minute — enough to determine the level of coffee in the glass pot.
The designations employed and the presentation of material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, its authorities, its current or former official name or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
Acupuncture is growing in popularity world-wide. Since it started to be scientifically
studied in the 1970’s, acupuncture is conquering position as an efficient and safe
therapeutic method. The amount of cumulated scientific evidence is already enough to
guarantee a highly detached status for acupuncture among other complementary
therapies. In many countries, acupuncture is well integrated into the conventional
health system. This scenario would seem to be very favorable and the value of
acupuncture would thus seem well consolidated.
In community-dwelling elders, the relation
between dietary quality, social support
and living arrangements is controversial.
Some studies have found positive
relations,21,65,68,70,78-80 whereas others have
found diet quality to be unaffected by a
poor social network.81 It has been suggested
that geographical isolation has an
adverse effect on nutritional status among
There is no doubt that the protection of women during pregnancy and lactation must be one
of the major priorities of health systems and social policies. The effect of women’s nutritional
status on pregnancy outcomes is particularly strong, and adequate maternal nutrition is
closely related to the survival and well-being of babies and children. However, not all women
are mothers, and their nutritional and health needs go far beyond motherhood and
Women of all ages in developing countries face elevated risks of nutritional deficiencies.
gonadal (HPG) axis is subject to both positive feed-forward and negative
feedback regulation at several levels. At the level of the hypothalamus, early recognition of
the pulsatile nature of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion led to the notion of a
central ‘‘pulse generator”, the inherent oscillatory activity of which controls the secretory
rhythm of GnRH neurons (Knobil, 1980).
In addition to this, health measures
typically used in empirical studies may be affected by endogenous reporting behaviour. The outcome of a
direct question to an individual’s health status may depend on the labour market status of the respondent.
There may be economic motives or it may be the case that individual’s are inclined to give their answer
conform to social norms. Reporting health as a major determinant for inactivity is socially more accepted,
and eligibility conditions for some Social Security Benefits, notably Disability Insurance ...
Available information shows that the nutritional status of Mexican women differs widely
within the country, according to geographical regions, urban and rural areas, and income
groups. Nutritional deficiencies, anaemia and stunting, for example, are more common in
poor women who live in the less-developed regions of the country, in rural and indigenous
communities or in marginal urban areas. On the other hand, overweight and obesity currently
affect women of all income groups, but rates are higher in the more economically advanced
regions and big cities.
What have been the impacts of the GGDP-generated maize technologies? In the absence of reliable baseline data, it was not
possible to calculate quantitative measures of project impact. Based on farmers’ qualitative judgments, however, it is clear that
adoption of the GGDP-generated technologies has been associated with significant farm-level productivity gains (measured
in terms of maize yields) and noticeable increases in the income earned from sales of maize. Impacts on the nutritional status
of rural households, however, appear to have been less pronounced.