After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Become familiar with several object-persistence formats, be able to map problem domain objects to different object-persistence formats, be able to apply the steps of normalization to a relational database, be able to optimize a relational database for object storage and access,...
Unique to the popular Grails web framework is its architecture. While other frameworks are built from the ground up, Grails leverages existing and proven technologies that already have advanced functionality built in. One of the key technologies in this architecture is Hibernate, on top of which Grails builds its GORM (Grails Object Relational Mapping) model layer. This provides Grails a persistence solution.
Microsoft’s ADO.NET Entity Framework, known widely as EF, introduced out-of-thebox
Object Relational Mapping to .NET and Visual Studio. Central to Entity Framework
was the Entity Data Model, a conceptual model of your application domain that
maps back to the schema of your database. This conceptual model describes the core
classes in your application. Entity Framework uses this conceptual model while querying
from the database, creating objects from that data and then persisting changes back
to the database....
The international significance of research into the sources, behaviour, fate, and effects of
persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is exemplified by the Stockholm Convention for which
the host organisation is the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Following
extensive negotiation, it was adopted on 22 May 2001, entered into force 90 days after the
50th party had ratified it on 17 May 2004, and by late 2008 there were over 180 participants
Wastes are very process-specific but the key pollutants can be derived from
knowledge of: the process, construction materials, corrosion / erosion mechanisms and
maintenance materials. Waste audits are used to gather information on the source, composition,
quantity and variability of all wastes. Waste prevention typically involves preventing the
arising of waste at source, minimising the arisings and recycling any waste that is generated.
The predominant and persistent indoor VOCs included aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde,
acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal and nonanal) and terpene hydrocarbons (e.g., a-pinene, 3-carene
and d-limonene), which are characteristic of wood product emissions. Other compounds of
interest included phenol, naphthalene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. VOC concentrations
were generally typical of results reported for other new houses. Measurements of total VOCs
were used to evaluate short-term changes in indoor VOC concentrations. ...
The current study was undertaken in a new manufactured house set up as a research
facility. The plan was to conduct longitudinal measurements of VOC concentrations in the
house along with measurements of key physical parameters including house air change rate,
indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity, and wind conditions over a period of
approximately one year. The primary objective was to evaluate changes in the emissions of
formaldehyde and other VOCs in response to time, house air change rate, and the other
The Internals list is a strange beast. It can lay nearly dormant for weeks
at a time, and then, overnight it seems, the sleeping giant is awakened
with an onslaught of comments and opinions. It’s a really strange feeling
to wake up and find a list that usually gets 5 or fewer posts overnight,
suddenly dominating my inbox with several dozen loud messages.
Relational databases are indisputably at the core of the modern enterprise.
While modern programming languages, including JavaTM, provide an intuitive,
object-oriented view of application-level business entities, the enterprise data
underlying these entities is heavily relational in nature. Further, the main strength
of the relational model—over earlier navigational models as well as over later
OODB models—is that by design it is intrinsically agnostic to the programmatic
manipulation and application-level view of the data that it serves up...
JDBC has simplified database access in Java applications, but a few nagging wrinkles remain—namely, persisting Java objects to relational databases. With this book, you’ll learn how the Spring Framework makes that job incredibly easy with dependency injection, template classes, and object-relational-mapping (ORM).
Through sample code, you’ll discover how Spring streamlines the use of JDBC and ORM tools such as Hibernate, the Java Persistence API (JPA), and Java Data Objects (JDO).
The record, however, shows that in many, if not most, developing coun-
tries, the poor have by and large not benefited from government pro-
grams and projects in these areas. The reason, of course, has been the
weak capacity of government. States with weak institutions have to find
other ways to deliver basic social services and economic infrastructure
to their poor citizens. One of these ways is to work in partnership with
private sector and community organizations, sometimes called civil so-
Ouedraogo et al. 2006). Most patients presented with
symptoms suspicious for TB; thus, lack of diagnostic
sensitivity of health workers is of concern (Wandwalo &
Afghanistan has the highest TB burden in south Asia
(World Health Organization 2007). While health services
are expanding and quality improving, gaps in access and
deficient quality of some interventions persist. The Ministry
of Public Health adopted a Basic Package of Health
Services (BPHS) in 2003, which provides standard primary
care services for districts covering 77% of the population.
“This book introduces a new and important idea, providing a rigorous approach to Patterns-Based Engineering. As the number of published patterns has increased, understanding how to apply them across all parts of the software development lifecycle has become critically important.” —Kyle Brown, Distinguished Engineer, IBM Software Group, Author of Persistence in the Enterprise “To misquote Confucius, ‘Give a man a solution and you solve his problem for a day. Teach a man a pattern and you’ve solved his problems for a lifetime.
In 2007, a UNICEF report on the well-being of children around the world, ranked the UK at
the bottom of the world’s 21 richest countries. For all six parameters: material well-being,
health and safety, educational well-being, family and peer relationships, behaviour and risks
and subjective well-being, the UK was amongst the bottom five countries (UNICEF 2007).
Since then, there has been considerable debate in the UK about ways to measure and
enhance children’s well-being.
In this chapter, you will learn how to programmatically create (and destroy) a directory system as well as move data into and out of various streams (file based, string based, memory based, etc.). The latter part of this chapter examines the role of isolated storage, which allows you to persist per-user data into a safe sandbox, regardless of the security settings of a target machine.
This is the second of two chapters on object-oriented tools and techniques for systems development. This chapter focuses specifically on tools and techniques that are used during systems design. You will know object-oriented systems design when you can: Differentiate between entity, interface, control, persistence, and system classes; understand the concept of a dependency and navigability; define visibility and explain its three levels;...
In addition to global climate change, these include: the health risks
posed by stratospheric ozone depletion; loss of biodiversity; stresses on terrestrial
and ocean food-producing systems; changes in hydrological systems and the sup-
plies of freshwater; and the global dissemination of persistent organic pollutants.
Climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion are the best known of these
various global environmental changes.
The new version of PHP is out. RC4 was the last step
before the final release—developers have been asked to
commit to the PHP CVS repository only changes that fix
bugs marked as “critical” in the bug tracking system,
and thankfully only lasted a few days.
The PHP developers have also solved a dilemma that
has all but dominated the mailing lists of late—the
naming of the CLI (command-line interface) version of
PHP vs. the CGI executable, which is used when using
PHP as a separate executable to run scripts through a
Kết thúc chương, học viên có thể:
Định nghĩa Lập trình hướng Đối tượng (Object-oriented Programming).
Nhận thức về Trừu tượng hóa Dữ liệu (Data Abstraction).
Định nghĩa một Lớp (Class).
Định nghĩa một Đối tượng (Object).
Nhận thức được sự khác biệt giữa Lớp và Đối tượng.
Nhận thức được sự cần thiết đối với Thiết lập (Construction) và Hủy (Destruction).
Định nghĩa tính Bền vững (Persistence).
Hiểu biết về tính Thừa kế (Inheritance).