After the domination of behaviourism in Anglo-American psychology during the
middle of the century, the impression has been left, reflected in the many texts on
research design, that the experimental method is the central tool of psychological
research. In fact, a glance through journals will illuminate a wide array of datagathering
instruments in use outside the experimental laboratory and beyond the
While the stochastic volatility (SV) generalization has been shown to
improve the explanatory power over the Black-Scholes model, empirical
implications of SV models on option pricing have not yet been adequately
tested. The purpose of this paper is to ﬁrst estimate a multivariate SV
model using the efﬁcient method of moments (EMM) technique from
observations of underlying state variables and then investigate the respective
effect of stochastic interest rates, systematic volatility and idiosyncratic
volatility on option prices....
The purpose of this book is to present a basic yet comprehensive
treatment of assessment methods for use by health professions educators.
While there are many excellent textbooks in psychometric theory
and its application to large-scale standardized testing programs and
many educational measurement and assessment books designed for
elementary and secondary teachers and graduate students in education
and psychology, none of these books is entirely appropriate for
the specialized educational and assessment requirements of the health
This Handbook has been designed to assist students as well as professionals in the
behavioral and biological sciences to understand and apply the principles and methods
of experimental research. The Handbook is comprehensive but is written in a concise,
outline format. This allows a considerable amount of material to be presented in an explicit,
compact form that facilitates the perception and understanding of the hierarchical and
parallel relationships among concepts. As a result, learning, retrieving, and applying the
information should be greatly enhanced....
Standard method of test for particle size analysis of soils describes a procedure for the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils. The following applies to all specified limits in this standard: For the purposes of determining conformance with these specifications, an observed value or a calculated value shall be rounded off “to the nearest unit” in the last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the limiting value, in accordance with ASTM E 29. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
Chinese Pinyin input method is very important for Chinese language information processing. Users may make errors when they are typing in Chinese words. In this paper, we are concerned with the reasons that cause the errors. Inspired by the observation that pressing backspace is one of the most common user behaviors to modify the errors, we collect 54, 309, 334 error-correction pairs from a realworld data set that contains 2, 277, 786 users via backspace operations. In addition, we present a comparative analysis of the data to achieve a better understanding of users’ input behaviors. ...
We present several algorithms for assigning heads in phrase structure trees, based on different linguistic intuitions on the role of heads in natural language syntax. Starting point of our approach is the observation that a head-annotated treebank deﬁnes a unique lexicalized tree substitution grammar. This allows us to go back and forth between the two representations, and deﬁne objective functions for the unsupervised learning of head assignments in terms of features of the implicit lexicalized tree grammars.
This chapter provides coverage on conducting observation studies. After reading this chapter, you should understand: When observation studies are most useful, distinctions between monitoring nonbehavioral and behavioral activities, strengths of the observation approach in research design, weaknesses of the observation approach in research design.
Chapter 8 - Observation studies. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: When observation studies are most useful, distinctions between monitoring, nonbehavioral and behavioral activities strengths of the observation approach in research design, weaknesses of the observation approach in research design.
The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) provides an efﬁcient method for generating approximate maximum-likelihood estimates of the state of a discrete-time nonlinear dynamical system (see Chapter 1). The ﬁlter involves a recursive procedure to optimally combine noisy observations with predictions from the known dynamic model. A second use of the EKF involves estimating the parameters of a model (e.g., neural network) given clean training data of input and output data (see Chapter 2).
A: Basically, statistics is the “science of data.” There are three main tasks in statistics: (A)
collection and organization, (B) analysis, and (C) interpretation of data.
(A) Collection and organization of data: We will see several methods of organizing
data: graphically (through the use of charts and graphs) and numerically (through the use of
tables of data). The type of organization we do depends on the type of analysis we wish to
Carbon nanotubes were identified for the first time in 1991 by Sumio Iijima at
the NEC Research Laboratory, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy,
while studying the soot made from by-products obtained during the
synthesis of fullerenes by the electric arc discharge method. In this soot, Iijima
clearly observed the so-called multiwalled nanotubes, molecular carbon tubes
with diameters in the nanometer range, consisting of carbon atoms arranged
in a seamless graphitic structure rolled up to form concentric cylinders.
These CNVs may show
association with certain clinical conditions and help in predicting risk and also
diagnosis. All these approaches have their merits and demerits and in general are
tedious, time consuming and need manpower with stringent handling. This naturally
prompted the development of several automated methods for culturing cells in mass
scale, use of membrane bioreactors, and image analysis for interpreting the cytogenetic
You have perhaps observed the regularity of arrangement in the twigs and branches of trees. Now pull up the roots of a plant, as, for example, sheep sorrel, Jimson weed, or some other plant. Note the branching of the roots. In these there is no such regularity as is seen in the twig. Trace the rootlets to their finest tips. How small, slender, and delicate they are! Still we do not see the finest of them, for in taking the plant from the ground we tore the most delicate away. In order to see the real construction of a...
In real life, there is always some kind of noise present in the observations. Noise
can correspond to actual physical noise in the measuring devices, or to inaccuracies
of the model used. Therefore, it has been proposed that the independent component
analysis (ICA) model should include a noise term as well. In this chapter, we consider
different methods for estimating the ICA model when noise is present.
Concluding Remarks. Extreme changes in selectivity and reversal of elution order of phenolic isomeric compounds were obtained after changing either the pH of the mobile phase, the temperature of the system, or the type of organic eluent employed. Changes in the analyte ionization state were observed upon increasing the acetonitrile composition as well as the temperature. Method development for ionizable analytes requires a judicious choice of the mobile-phase conditions and system parameters in order to perform the analysis of the compounds in their desired ionization state. ...
The essential role of epidemiology is to improve the health of populations. Advances
in epidemiology research are expected to play a central role in medicine and public
health in the 21st century by providing information for disease prediction and
This book represents an overview on the diverse threads of epidemiological research
in that captures the new and exciting themes that have been emerging over recent
in sunlight. This resulted in the development of a wide variety of sophisticated
and elegant sundials, which became the standard timekeepers. Sundials were also
used as reference for other modes of time-keeping such as hourglasses.
Time kept by this method is called apparent solar time. The time between
successive appearances of the Sun at the local meridian defines the apparent
solar day. Because of Earth’s elliptical orbit, the angular distance it covers per
day varies. It moves more rapidly in winter when it approaches perihelion than
in summer when it’s near aphelion....
The title of the book System, Structure and Control encompasses broad field of theory and applications of many different control approaches applied on different classes of dynamic systems. Output and state feedback control include among others robust control, optimal control or intelligent control methods such as fuzzy or neural network approach, dynamic systems are e.g.