Observational methods

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Methods in behavioral research" has contents: Scientific understanding of behavior, where to start, ethical research, fundamental research issues, measurement concepts, observational methods, asking people about themselves: survey research, experimental design.

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  • After the domination of behaviourism in Anglo-American psychology during the middle of the century, the impression has been left, reflected in the many texts on research design, that the experimental method is the central tool of psychological research. In fact, a glance through journals will illuminate a wide array of datagathering instruments in use outside the experimental laboratory and beyond the field experiment.

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  • While the stochastic volatility (SV) generalization has been shown to improve the explanatory power over the Black-Scholes model, empirical implications of SV models on option pricing have not yet been adequately tested. The purpose of this paper is to first estimate a multivariate SV model using the efficient method of moments (EMM) technique from observations of underlying state variables and then investigate the respective effect of stochastic interest rates, systematic volatility and idiosyncratic volatility on option prices....

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  • The purpose of this book is to present a basic yet comprehensive treatment of assessment methods for use by health professions educators. While there are many excellent textbooks in psychometric theory and its application to large-scale standardized testing programs and many educational measurement and assessment books designed for elementary and secondary teachers and graduate students in education and psychology, none of these books is entirely appropriate for the specialized educational and assessment requirements of the health professions.

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  • This Handbook has been designed to assist students as well as professionals in the behavioral and biological sciences to understand and apply the principles and methods of experimental research. The Handbook is comprehensive but is written in a concise, outline format. This allows a considerable amount of material to be presented in an explicit, compact form that facilitates the perception and understanding of the hierarchical and parallel relationships among concepts. As a result, learning, retrieving, and applying the information should be greatly enhanced....

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  • Standard method of test for particle size analysis of soils describes a procedure for the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils. The following applies to all specified limits in this standard: For the purposes of determining conformance with these specifications, an observed value or a calculated value shall be rounded off “to the nearest unit” in the last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the limiting value, in accordance with ASTM E 29. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.

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  • Chinese Pinyin input method is very important for Chinese language information processing. Users may make errors when they are typing in Chinese words. In this paper, we are concerned with the reasons that cause the errors. Inspired by the observation that pressing backspace is one of the most common user behaviors to modify the errors, we collect 54, 309, 334 error-correction pairs from a realworld data set that contains 2, 277, 786 users via backspace operations. In addition, we present a comparative analysis of the data to achieve a better understanding of users’ input behaviors. ...

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  • We present several algorithms for assigning heads in phrase structure trees, based on different linguistic intuitions on the role of heads in natural language syntax. Starting point of our approach is the observation that a head-annotated treebank defines a unique lexicalized tree substitution grammar. This allows us to go back and forth between the two representations, and define objective functions for the unsupervised learning of head assignments in terms of features of the implicit lexicalized tree grammars.

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  • This chapter provides coverage on conducting observation studies. After reading this chapter, you should understand: When observation studies are most useful, distinctions between monitoring nonbehavioral and behavioral activities, strengths of the observation approach in research design, weaknesses of the observation approach in research design.

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  • Chapter 8 - Observation studies. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: When observation studies are most useful, distinctions between monitoring, nonbehavioral and behavioral activities strengths of the observation approach in research design, weaknesses of the observation approach in research design.

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  • Notes 10: Learning from observations presents about Learning agents, Inductive learning, Decision tree learning, Learning element, Inductive learning method, Learning decision trees, Attribute-based representations.

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  • Chapter 15 - Nonparametric methods: Goodness-of-fit tests. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Conduct a test of hypothesis comparing an observed set of frequencies to an expected distribution, list and explain the characteristics of the chi-square distribution, compute a goodness-of-fit test for unequal expected frequencies,...

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Research methods for business students" has contents: Collecting primary data through observation, collecting primary data using questionnaires, analysing quantitative data, analysing qualitative data, writing and presenting your project report,...and other contents.

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  • Lecture Research methods - Chapter 6 presents the following content: Secondary data sources; types of secondary data; locating secondary data; advantages and disadvantages of secondary data and evaluating secondary data; collecting primary data through observations; participant observation and structured observation; collecting primary data using semi-structured, in-depth and group interviews; collecting primary data using questionnaires.

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  • The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) provides an efficient method for generating approximate maximum-likelihood estimates of the state of a discrete-time nonlinear dynamical system (see Chapter 1). The filter involves a recursive procedure to optimally combine noisy observations with predictions from the known dynamic model. A second use of the EKF involves estimating the parameters of a model (e.g., neural network) given clean training data of input and output data (see Chapter 2).

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  • A: Basically, statistics is the “science of data.” There are three main tasks in statistics: (A) collection and organization, (B) analysis, and (C) interpretation of data. (A) Collection and organization of data: We will see several methods of organizing data: graphically (through the use of charts and graphs) and numerically (through the use of tables of data). The type of organization we do depends on the type of analysis we wish to perform.

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  • Carbon nanotubes were identified for the first time in 1991 by Sumio Iijima at the NEC Research Laboratory, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, while studying the soot made from by-products obtained during the synthesis of fullerenes by the electric arc discharge method. In this soot, Iijima clearly observed the so-called multiwalled nanotubes, molecular carbon tubes with diameters in the nanometer range, consisting of carbon atoms arranged in a seamless graphitic structure rolled up to form concentric cylinders.

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  • These CNVs may show association with certain clinical conditions and help in predicting risk and also diagnosis. All these approaches have their merits and demerits and in general are tedious, time consuming and need manpower with stringent handling. This naturally prompted the development of several automated methods for culturing cells in mass scale, use of membrane bioreactors, and image analysis for interpreting the cytogenetic observations made.

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  • You have perhaps observed the regularity of arrangement in the twigs and branches of trees. Now pull up the roots of a plant, as, for example, sheep sorrel, Jimson weed, or some other plant. Note the branching of the roots. In these there is no such regularity as is seen in the twig. Trace the rootlets to their finest tips. How small, slender, and delicate they are! Still we do not see the finest of them, for in taking the plant from the ground we tore the most delicate away. In order to see the real construction of a...

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  • In real life, there is always some kind of noise present in the observations. Noise can correspond to actual physical noise in the measuring devices, or to inaccuracies of the model used. Therefore, it has been proposed that the independent component analysis (ICA) model should include a noise term as well. In this chapter, we consider different methods for estimating the ICA model when noise is present.

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