Immediately after the first drafts of the human genome sequence were reported almost
a decade ago, the importance of genomics and functional genomics studies became
well recognized across the broad disciplines of biological sciences research.
Although inelastic scattering of light from molecules, a phenomenon
now known as Raman scattering, was observed by C. V. Raman in
1928, the nonlinear phenomenon of stimulated Raman scattering was
not demonstrated until 1962. Soon after low-loss silica fibers became
available around 1970, Roger Stolen and coworkers used stimulated
Raman scattering in such fibers not only for amplification of optical signals
but also for constructing fiber-based Raman lasers.
The title of the book System, Structure and Control encompasses broad field of theory and applications of many different control approaches applied on different classes of dynamic systems. Output and state feedback control include among others robust control, optimal control or intelligent control methods such as fuzzy or neural network approach, dynamic systems are e.g.
Today, space technology is used as an excellent instrument for Earth observation applications. Data is collected using satellites and other available platforms for remote sensing. Remote sensing data collection detects a wide range of electromagnetic energy which is emitting, transmitting, or reflecting from the Earth's surface. Appropriate detection systems are needed to implement further data processing. Space technology has been found to be a successful application for studying climate change, as current and past data can be dynamically compared.
The new edition of this comprehensive digital controls book integrates MATLAB throughout the book. The book has also increased inflexibility and reader friendliness through the streamlining of coverage in Chapters 6 & 7 (controllability, pole placement and observability, and optimal control). The previous edition ISBN is: 0-13-216102-8.
Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are an emerging research topic born from the
ever increasing complexity of engineered systems. Future systems will have to
interact with each other and with the physical world in a very tight and well
coordinated fashion, and designing such systems is the research challenge behind
CPSs. CPSs have been defined as “computational thinking and integration of com
putation around the physical dynamic systems where sensing, decision, actuation,
computation, networking, and physical processes are mixed”.
Neural Network-Based Adaptive Controller Design of Robotic Manipulators with an Observer
Fuchun Sun, Member, IEEE, Zengqi Sun, Senior Member, IEEE, and Peng-Yung Woo, Member, IEEE
Abstract—A neural network (NN)-based adaptive controller with an observer is proposed in this paper for the trajectory tracking of robotic manipulators with unknown dynamics nonlinearities. It is assumed that the robotic manipulator has only joint angle position measurements.
The magnetosphere is an open system that interacts with the solar wind. In this system, solar wind energy continuously permeates different regions of the magnetosphere through electromagnetic processes, which we can well describe in terms of current systems. In fact, our ability to use various methods to study magnetospheric current systems has recently prompted significant progress in our understanding of the phenomenon.
This paper presents a supervised pronoun anaphora resolution system based on factorial hidden Markov models (FHMMs). The basic idea is that the hidden states of FHMMs are an explicit short-term memory with an antecedent buffer containing recently described referents. Thus an observed pronoun can ﬁnd its antecedent from the hidden buffer, or in terms of a generative model, the entries in the hidden buffer generate the corresponding pronouns.
Hydrogenophilus thermoluteoluscytochromec¢ (PHCP) has typical spectral
properties previously observed for other cytochromesc¢, which comprise
Ambler’s class II cytochromesc. The PHCP protein sequence (135 amino
acids) deduced from the cloned gene is the most homologous (55% iden-tity) to that of cytochrome c¢ from Allochromatium vinosum(AVCP).
Statistical language modeling (SLM) has been used in many different domains for decades and has also been applied to information retrieval (IR) recently. Documents retrieved using this approach are ranked according their probability of generating the given query. In this paper, we present a novel approach that employs the generalized Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to improve language models by representing their parameters as observation probabilities of Hidden Markov Models (HMM).
Over several years, we have developed an approach to spoken dialogue systems that includes rule-based and trainable dialogue managers, spoken language understanding and generation modules, and a comprehensive dialogue system architecture. We present a Reinforcement Learning-based dialogue system that goes beyond standard rule-based models and computes on-line decisions of the best dialogue moves. The key concept of this work is that we bridge the gap between manually written dialog models (e.g.
Deriving the polarity and strength of opinions is an important research topic, attracting signiﬁcant attention over the last few years. In this work, to measure the strength and polarity of an opinion, we consider the economic context in which the opinion is evaluated, instead of using human annotators or linguistic resources. We rely on the fact that text in on-line systems inﬂuences the behavior of humans and this effect can be observed using some easy-to-measure economic variables, such as revenues or product prices. ...
This paper presents the ﬁrst demonstration of a statistical spoken dialogue system that uses automatic belief compression to reason over complex user goal sets. Reasoning over the power set of possible user goals allows complex sets of user goals to be represented, which leads to more natural dialogues. The use of the power set results in a massive expansion in the number of belief states maintained by the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) spoken dialogue manager.
Previous studies evaluate simulated dialog corpora using evaluation measures which can be automatically extracted from the dialog systems’ logs. However, the validity of these automatic measures has not been fully proven. In this study, we ﬁrst recruit human judges to assess the quality of three simulated dialog corpora and then use human judgments as the gold standard to validate the conclusions drawn from the automatic measures. We observe that it is hard for the human judges to reach good agreement when asked to rate the quality of the dialogs from given perspectives.
User-adviser dialogues were collected in a typed Wizardof-Oz study (=man-behind-the-curtain study*). Thirty-two users had to solve simple statistics problems using an unfamiliar statistical package. Users received help on how to use the statistical package by typing utterances to what they believed was a computerized adviser. The observed limited set of users' grammatical and ungrammatical forms demonstrates the sufficiency of a very restricted grammar of English for a natural language interface to an advisory sys* tem.
An English-Japanese bi-directional machine translation system was connected to a keyboard conversation function on a workstation, and tested via a satellite link with users in Japan and Switzerland. The set-up is described, and some informal observations on the nature of the bilingual dialogues reported. particular we were struck by the amount of metadialogue, i.e. dialogue discussing the previous interchanges: since contributions to the conversation were being translated, this metadialogue posed certain problems which we think are of general interest. ...
The essential characteristics of system testing are that it is comprehensive, based on a specification of observable behavior, and independent of design and implementation decisions. Independence in system testing avoids repeating software design errors in test design. Acceptance testing abandons specifications in favor of users, and measures how the final system meets users' expectations. Regression testing checks for faults introduced during evolution.