One of the characteristics of non-wood fibres is the much wider range of fibre
lengths in different species (Atchison 1987). Many of these fibres, such as
straws, reeds and bagasse, are similar in length to the short fibre hardwoods. On
the other hand, others such as flax and hemp are so long that they have to be
shortened prior to papermaking (Atchison 1987). From a quality point of view,
any grade of paper can be produced by the combination of different non-wood
plant fibres (Atchison & McGovern 1987). For instance, flax has a very long
fibre length and...
The above three
approaches are used for the valuation of land as a site for the construction of a
particular building at the current time. Which approach is more applicable is
problem-specific. For example, in a situation where the purchase of real estate
is for investment, the income approach seems more suitable, whereas for
individual use, the sales comparison approach is more acceptable. Another
way for the valuation of land is to consider a vacant piece of land as a
potential site for development in the future so that it is viewed as an option for
purchasing one of...
We test three hypotheses concerning the impact of loan market competition on euro area banks’ loan
and deposit rates. First, we examine the effect of loan market competition on the level on bank loan
and deposit rates; second, using a panel error-correction model (ECM) we estimate the effect of loan
market competition on the long-run equilibrium pass-through of bank interest rates to changes in
corresponding market interest rates; third, we also test the impact of competition in the loan market on
the immediate adjustment of bank interest rates to changes in market interest rates....
I've seen it claimed that one of the greatest fears that most people have is speaking before
a group. I imagine that most assistant professors have this problem, but after many years
of giving lectures before several hundred students it goes away.
In fact, lecturing can become downright addictive (as my family often reminds me.) As
the mathematician R. H. Bing once said: \When I was young, I would rather give a lecture
on mathematics than listen to one. Now that I am older and more mature I would rather
give two lectures on mathematics than listen to one.
The Ghana Grains Development Project (GGDP) was
launched in 1979 with funding from the Government of
Ghana and the Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA). The purpose of the project was to
develop and diffuse improved technology for maize and
grain legumes (initially only cowpea, but in later phases
also soybean and groundnut). The Crops Research
Institute (CRI) and the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) served as the project’s
primary executing bodies, while three other organizations
provided ancillary support.
Like metals, plastics can also be recycled but it is important that plastic parts can be easily
removed from the furniture and their type identified.
Therefore, the environmental criteria for plastics should focus on the limitation of certain
additives in plastic production and the marking of plastic parts for their easy disassembly for
As with metal, the use of recycled plastic should be encouraged, to reduce production-related
impacts, as well as the use of renewable resources....
In recent years, Japan’s major corporations have
increasingly relied on the corporate bond market as a
source of debt finance. From 1996 to 1998, the issuance
of corporate bonds increased more than 46 percent, from
30.8 trillion yen to about 45 trillion yen (Table 1).1 At the
same time, loans from Japan’s banking sector decreased
about 17 trillion yen. As the corporate bond market grew,
the spreads between the yields on Japanese corporate and
government bonds widened dramatically.
Our study constitutes a basis for further analyses of the equilibrium level of credit
in the economy and investigations of ¯nancial stability. In order to prove this, we note
that the econometric analysis in this article have been replicated and extended by Serwa
(2011) to build a model identifying both normal and boom regimes in the credit market.
In turn, Rubaszek (2011) have calibrated a version of the model including housing to
data on the banking sector in Poland. His results suggest that incorporating housing
in the model signi¯cantly increases the volume of credit in the economy. ...
The definition of an insurance contract distinguishes insurance contracts that are
subject to IFRS 4 from those contracts that are subject to IAS 39. Some contracts,
however, contain both an insurance component and a deposit component.
The deposit component of an insurance contract is defined as a contractual
component that is not accounted for as a financial instrument under IAS 39,
but that would be within the scope of IAS 39 if it were a separate instrument.
Key events have effectively accelerated this pace. First, there was the election of the
Obama administration in 2008 on a platform that emphasized healthcare reform. Sec-
ond, there was the contemporaneous global economic meltdown and the subsequent
enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), including the sec-
tion entitled Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health
(HITECH). HDOs, as well as state and federal legislative and regulatory agencies, are
now entrants in an HIT compliance race.
The Government Accountability Office, in its 1998 report Child Labor in Agriculture, estimated that
approximately 120,000 children between the ages of 15 and 17 work in agriculture but
acknowledged it is very difficult to develop an accurate figure. Children who work with and
around pesticides may not be the only children exposed. Parents who work with pesticides, or
who work in or near fields where pesticides have been or are being applied, may bring their
children to the fields with them.
This experiment examines a human Alu dimorphism at the PV92 locus. A
sample of human cells is obtained by saline mouthwash (alternatively
DNA may be isolated from hair sheaths). DNA is extracted by boiling with
Chelex® resin, which binds contaminating metal ions. Polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) is then used to amplify a chromosome region that contains
the PV92 Alu dimorphism. The Alu insertion allele (+) is 300 nucleotides
longer than the non-insertion allele (–), so the two alleles are readily
separated by agarose gel electrophoresis.
The success of our attack hinges on accurate identiﬁca-
tion of keystroke events from the victim’s process. We
ﬁngerprint such an event with an ESP pattern of the sys-
tem calls related to a keystroke.
While significant parts of this book have been written anew, it have drawn
on material from a number of previously published articles. Sometimes only a
part of an article made it into the final manuscript; in other cases, its parts ended
up in different chapters of the book; in yet other case, a whole article became the
basis for one of the sections. In the following I list the articles which were used as
material for the book. Many of them were reprinted and translated into other
languages; here I list the first instance of publication in English. Also, it...
The Family Liaison Office (FLO) is well aware that many family members continue to be
concerned about their careers. The frequent moves, the different languages and cultures
encountered and the difficulty in landing positions around the world, often negatively impact
family members’ career development. With this in mind, FLO continues to seek employment
opportunities for family members. One area that many of you are finding attractive is starting
and operating your own home-based business.
But large numbers of education Volunteers have enjoyed the challenge of making the impossible
possible. They've developed coping strategies and ways of teaching effectively in very large
classes. This book brings you some of those strategies in the hope that they will be of use to you.
We have included practical, obvious, and bold suggestions that have been made by Volunteers
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in well-established programs such as in
francophone Gabon, or Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) in newer projects such
Other methods have proposed the use of standard beads (Polysciences latex beads), as well
described by Gasol and del Giorgio in 2000. Briefly, the beads have to be counted every day
and must be sonicated to avoid aggregation.
Flow rate calibration can be performed by weighing a tube containing water, processing
various volumes, estimating the time needed for each volume to go through and then
reweighing the tube. This makes it possible to calculate the mean of the flow rate per minute
Moreover, we will present estimates for different scenarios – of slow and
rapid adoption of the new technology – that should cover the range of possible out-
comes with a good approximation. Third and last, our approach neglects some of
the positive effects exerted by the introduction of cloud computing, mainly the cre-
ation of new network effects and the positive externalities due to energy savings.
Their consideration would be subject to excessive uncertainty, but because of this
we can look at our estimates of the impact of cloud computing on the economy as
The idea to build small cars for the Indian market is almost as old as India’s independence.
Already by the late 1950s, the Indian Government established a Commission with the task to
look at costs and prices of motor vehicles produced in the country and invited proposals for
the production of an ‘economy car’. In response, different manufactures submitted proposals.
Tata, for example, submitted a proposal for the license production of a DKW light car.
In designing embedded systems, the exploration and synthesis of different design alternatives and co-verification of a specific implementation are the most demanding tasks. Kaffe, an open-source technology, provides a platform for building a runtime environment and integrating different design methodologies. Integrating Kaffe into embedded systems is the cornerstone of java-like technologies, allowing possibilities such as the development of portable programs on mobile devices.