We begin this book during the Fourth of July weekend, 75 days after the
Deepwater Horizon exploded, burst into flames, and sank, killing 11 men.
In the wake of this accident came the worst environmental disaster in U.S.
history. The starting date of our writing is significant because this is a weekend
when normally thousands of people would descend on the beaches and
restaurants of the Gulf Coast. The Gulf is a place of great bounty. A couple
of hours with some traps produces enough blue crabs to make a cauldron of
gumbo that can feed a family and guests for days.
Widespread thermal anomalies in 1997–1998,
due primarily to regional effects of the El Nin˜ o–Southern
Oscillation and possibly augmented by global
warming, caused severe coral bleaching worldwide.
Corals in all habitats alongthe Belizean barrier reef
bleached as a result of elevated sea temperatures in the
summer and fall of 1998, and in fore-reef habitats of the
outer barrier reef and offshore platforms they showed
signs of recovery in 1999. In contrast, coral populations
on reefs in the central shelf lagoon died off catastrophically.
Brazilian shipbuilding industry, the main representative of this industry in Latin
America, has been very active during the 70s and 80s. Afterwards it has experimented a
deep decline. The main preserved construction niche was devoted to supply boats for
offshore operations. More recently, due to a political decision from the federal
government, most of the orders for offshore platforms and large ocean ships have been
placed in the national shipyards.
This book can be used as a general handbook for applying electrical engineering to the oil, gas and
petrochemical industries. The contents have been developed from a series of lectures on electrical
power systems, given to oil company staff and university students, in various countries. The author
has condensed many years of his knowledge and practical experience into the book.
The fact that electric arc could operate was known for over a 100 years. The first ever underwater welding was carried out by British Admiralty – Dockyard for sealing leaking ship rivets below the water line. Underwater welding is an important tool for underwater fabrication works. In 1946, special waterproof electrodes were developed in Holland by ‘Van der Willingen’. In recent years the number of offshore structures including oil drilling rigs, pipelines, platforms are being installed significantly.