Oil and gas transport

Xem 1-20 trên 27 kết quả Oil and gas transport
  • Microscopic and imaging techniques: – Optical microscopy – Confocal microscopy – Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, related methods) – Scanning probe microscopy (STM and AFM, related methods) Surface spectrometric techniques: – X-ray fluorescence (from electron microscopy) – Auger electron spectrometry – X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS/UPS/ESCA)

    pdf24p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 44 12   Download

  •  Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy: – First real IR spectra measured by Abney and Festing in 1880’s – Technique made into a routine analytical method between 1903- 1940 (especially by Coblentz at the US NBS) – IR spectroscopy through most of the 20th century is done with dispersive (grating) instruments, i.e. monochromators – Fourier Transform (FT) IR instruments become common in the 1980’s, led to a great increase in sensitivity and resolution  Raman Spectroscopy: – In 1928, C. V.

    pdf31p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 50 9   Download

  • Surface contamination: – The obvious contamination/alteration of surfaces that can be the result of less-than careful sample preparation – Solid surfaces can adsorb gases: At 10-6 torr, a complete monolayer of a gas (e.g. CO) takes just 3 seconds to form. At 10-8 torr, monolayer formation takes 1 hour. – Most studies are conducted under vaccuum – although there are newer methods that don’t require this.

    pdf23p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 36 8   Download

  • Aldehydes and Ketones – Form acetals and ketals respectively with normal methanol-containing reagents – Water formed in this reaction will then be titrated to give erroneously high water results – With aldehydes a second side reaction can take place, consuming water, which can lead to sample water content being underestimated – Replacing methanol with another solvent can solve the difficulties (commercial reagents are widely available)

    pdf14p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 30 4   Download

  •  IUPAC Definition: chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of which is stationary while the other moves in a definite direction  Stationary phase (SP): common name for the column packing material in any type of chromatography  Mobile phase (MP): liquid media that continuously flows through the column and carries the analytes  Analyte: the chemical species being investigated (detected and quantitatively measured) by an analytical method...

    pdf19p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 37 9   Download

  • ● Adsorption chromatography • The stationary phase is an adsorbent (like silica gel or any other silica-based packing) • The separation is based on repeated adsorption-desorption steps. ● Normal-phase chromatography • The stationary bed is strongly polar in nature (e.g., silica gel), and the mobile phase is nonpolar (such as n-hexane or tetrahydrofuran). • Polar samples are retained on the polar surface of the column packing longer than less polar materials.

    pdf28p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 45 9   Download

  • Mass Spectrometry (a.k.a. MS or mass spec) – a method of separating and analyzing ions by their mass-to-charge ratio MS does not involve a specific region of the electromagnetic spectrum (because it is not directly interested in the energies of emitted photons, electronic or vibrational transitions, nuclear spin transitions, etc…)

    pdf33p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 29 7   Download

  • LIF (laser-induced fluorescence) is a very popular CE detector – These have ~0.01 attomole sensitivity for fluorescent molecules (e.g. derivatized proteins). Direct absorbance (UV-Vis) can be used for organics. For inorganics, indirect absorbance methods are used instead, where a absorptive buffer (e.g. chromate) is displaced by analyte ions – Detection limits are in the 50-500 ppb range. Alternative methods involving potentiometric and conductometric detection are also used – Potentiometric detection: a broad-spectrum ISE – Conductometric detection: like IC...

    pdf21p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 29 5   Download

  •  Matched against a wide range of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques, the techniques of electroanalytical chemistry find an important role for several reasons: – Electroanalytical methods are often specific for a particular oxidation state of an element – Electrochemical instrumentation is relatively inexpensive and can be miniaturized – Electroanalytical methods provide information about activities (rather than concentration)

    pdf19p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 45 5   Download

  • Analytical chemists work to improve the reliability of existing techniques to meet the demands of for better chemical measurements which arise constantly in our society They adapt proven methodologies to new kinds of materials or to answer new questions about their composition. They carry out research to discover completely new principles of measurements and are at the forefront of the utilization of major discoveries such as lasers and microchip devices for practical purposes.

    pdf24p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 35 4   Download

  • The velocity at which radiation travels (or propagates) through a medium is dependent on the medium itself When radiation travels through a medium and does not undergo a frequency change, it cannot be undergoing a permanent energy transfer However, radiation can still interact with the medium – Radiation, an EM field, polarizes the electron clouds of atoms in the medium – Polarization is a temporary deformation of the electron clouds

    pdf14p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 23 4   Download

  • If you read March’s paper on ion traps: – What is resonant excitation? Summarize how resonant excitation is used in typical ion trap MS experiments. If you read the Russell and Edmondson paper on MALDITOF and accurate mass: – Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of MALDI-TOF (with DE and reflection) versus FTICR (including ESI-FTICR), especially in biochemical applications.

    pdf21p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 32 4   Download

  • This third editon has been intensively augmented and revised to include the latest developments in this rapidly expanding field. The intensified search for oil and gas, the catastrophic flooding of coastal regions and the demands for transportation, bridges, submerged tunnels and waterways have led to the continuing innovation of new technology which isnowavailable for use on more conventional projects as well as those at the frontiers. This text is intended as a guide and reference for practicing engineers and constructors for use in the marine environment.

    pdf802p trieuquanganh 03-12-2011 149 62   Download

  • Requires improvements in the whole column: – Sub 2 μm particles Porous for optimum mass transfer New bridged hybrid particle required for pressure tolerance (up to 15000 psi) Sizing technology for narrow particle size distribution – Column hardware New frit technology to retain particles New end fittings for high pressure/low dispersion operation – Packing technology New column packing processes to optimize stability

    pdf23p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 28 5   Download

  • Deviations from Beer’s law (i.e. deviations from the linearity of absorbance vs. concentration): – Intermolecular interactions at higher concentrations – Chemical reactions (species having different spectra) – Peak width/polychromatic radiation Beer’s law is only strictly valid with single-frequency radiation Not significant if the bandwidth of the monochromator is less than 1/10 of the half-width of the absorption peak at halfheight.

    pdf0p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 38 4   Download

  •  UV-Visible spectra can be interpreted to help determine molecular structure, but this is presently confined to the analysis of electron behavior in known compounds.  Information from other techniques (NMR, MS, IR) is usually far more useful for structural analysis  However, UV-Vis evidence should not be ignored!

    pdf18p qdung92ct 03-07-2012 26 4   Download

  • America’s public lands and Federal waters provide resources that are critical to the nation’s energy security. To encourage robust exploration and development of the nation’s resources, the Administration has offered millions of acres of public land and Federal waters for oil and gas leasing over the last two years. Oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf increased more than a third – from 446 million barrels in 2008 to more than 600 million barrels of estimated production in 2010.

    pdf89p nhacchovina 23-03-2013 18 4   Download

  • The world is on the threshold of a new era of innovation and change with the rise of the Industrial Internet. It is taking place through the convergence of the global industrial system with the power of advanced computing, analytics, low-cost sensing and new levels of connectivity permitted by the Internet. The deeper meshing of the digital world with the world of machines holds the potential to bring about profound transformation to global industry, and in turn to many aspects of daily life, including the way many of us do our jobs.

    pdf37p bin_pham 05-02-2013 17 2   Download

  • However, referring to the PPP Book 2011 released by the National Development Agency (BAPPENAS), 9 currently only selected sectors are being offered to the private sector, namely the Water Supply & Sanitation sector, Road sector, Power sector, Solid Waste Management sector and Transport sector (Monorail, Bus & Rail Terminals and Transjakarta). Though included in the PPP Book, no projects are proposed for the other sectors, namely the oil and gas sector, water resources sector and the telecommunications sector.

    pdf44p hoangphiyeah1tv 18-04-2013 19 2   Download

  • Welcome to Wonderware InTouch, the quickest and easiest way to create human-machine interface (HMI) applications for the Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows XP operating systems. InTouch is a component of the Wonderware FactorySuite. InTouch applications span the globe in a multitude of vertical markets including food processing, semiconductors, oil and gas, automotive, chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, transportation, utilities, and more.

    pdf882p nhatban050788 20-11-2010 151 68   Download

Đồng bộ tài khoản