In petroleum industry, it is desirable to produce lighter hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and gas–oil from unused heavy oils. Thus we have developed zirconia-supporting iron oxide catalysts View the MathML source to decompose petroleum residual oil (atmospheric distilled residual oil) with steam.
However, less attention has
been paid to smaller emerging markets, especially in the GCC countries where share dealing
is a relatively recent phenomenon. Using VAR models and cointegration tests, Hammoudeh
and Eleisa (2004) show that there is a bidirectional relationship between Saudi stock returns
and oil price changes. The findings also suggest that the other GCC markets are not directly
linked to oil prices and are less dependent on oil exports and are more influenced by domestic
factors. Bashar (2006) uses VAR analysis to study the effect of oil price changes on GCC....
The thermal stabilityofperoxidase fromleavesof theAfrican
oil palm treeElaeis guineensis(AOPTP) at pH 3.0 was
studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), intrinsic
fluorescence, CD and enzymatic assays.The spectral
parameters asmonitoredby ellipticity changes in the far-UV
CD spectrum of the enzyme as well as the increase in tryp-tophan intensity emission upon heating, together with
changes in enzymatic activity with temperature were seen to
be good complements to the highly sensitive but integral
It gives me immense pleasure in introducing the book "Nanomaterials" based on state
of the art of un-doped and doped semiconductor metal oxide nanostructures, state of
the art of nano-composites as well as applied polymers, and their various potential
applications. This deals with nano-technological aspects of the synthesis, growth,
development, and potential applications of semiconductor nanostructure metal oxides.
Lipids (fats and oils) are a wide range of organic molecules that serve several functions in organisms. Lipids are essential components of our diet, highlighting their important contribution in energy, representing 9 kcal/g (or 37.7 kJ/g), and by some components relevant to the metabolism, such as essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols).
Agriculture and forestry are poised on the brink of a quantum leap forward
through the further application of exciting new tools such as genomics and
transgenic plants. In the near future, it will be possible to produce a higher
quantity of improved quality crops than even imagined just a few years ago.
In addition to feed and food, it will be possible to provide raw materials for
industrial uses. For example, cotton fibers, wood ligno-celluloses, corn
carbohydrates, soybean oils, and other plant constituents will be altered via
designed changes in metabolic pathways.
Matched against a wide range of spectroscopic
and chromatographic techniques, the techniques
of electroanalytical chemistry find an important
role for several reasons:
– Electroanalytical methods are often specific for a
particular oxidation state of an element
– Electrochemical instrumentation is relatively
inexpensive and can be miniaturized
– Electroanalytical methods provide information about
activities (rather than concentration)
Evidence of increasing age includes wrinkles and sagging skin. Aging skin appears thinner, more pale, and clear (translucent). Thus, skin is at higher risk for injury. Large pigmented spots (called age spots, liver spots, or lentigos) may appear in sun-exposed areas. The blood vessels of the skin become more fragile. This leads to bruising, bleeding under the skin. Women’s skin gradually produces less oil beginning after menopause. This can make it harder to keep the skin moist, resulting in dryness and itchiness. The sweat glands produce less sweat.
The objective of this thesis was to study the interactions of microbial activity, biocide usage
and creation, and chemical changes in the papermaking process. The main focus was on
oxidative biocide systems. In addition, new measurement and biocide production methods
were applied to papermaking, and evaluated for the monitoring and control of the
microbiological state and biocide usage. The measurement methods were based on portable
handheld online equipments whereas the biocide production was based on electrochemical
generation of biocides.
The market prospects for palm oil are closely related to the world market for all oils
and fats. The demand for food fats and oils is expected to increase at an average annual
rate of 2.7%, ranging from 1.6% in developed to 4% in developing countries. Since
1970, production has increased annually by an average of 4.2%, with palm oil produc-
tion growing at an average of 13% up to 1977 and expected to grow by 7% per annum
from 1977 to 1985.
At present palm oi l represents about 10% of the world's production of fats and oils,
The first edition of Food Lipids was published in 1998 and the second edition in 2002 by Marcel
Dekker, Inc. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, acquired Marcel Dekker and the rights to publish the
third edition. We firmly believe that this book has been of interest and will help those involved in
lipid research and instruction. Many have bought the previous editions and we thank you for your
support. The need to update the information in the second edition cannot be overstated, as more data
and new technologies are constantly becoming available.
Abstract Red mud is a residue in the production of alumina by the Bayer process. It contains oxides of iron and titanium, and has been shown to be active in sulfided form as hydrogenation catalyst. The evolution of sulfided red mud activity and selectivity with reaction time was studied for the hydrogenation of a light fraction of an anthracene oil.
The rapidly increasing number of applications for microemulsions has kept this relatively old topic still at the top point of research themes. This book provides an assessment of some issues influencing the characteristics and performance of the microemulsions, as well as their main types of applications. In chapter 1 a short introduction about the background, various aspects and applications of microemulsions is given. In Part 2 some experimental and modeling investigations on microstructure and phase behavior of these systems have been discussed. ...
In later eras, new materials have been closely associated with radical change. The development of
paper was as important as the printing press in revolutionising communications. The introduction
of gunpowder into Europe transformed warfare. In more modern times, gas lighting only became
demonstrably superior to oil and candles with the introduction of the gas mantle, composed of
novel materials such as thorium and cerium oxides. A hundred years ago electric filament lamps
were made possible by other novel and fairly unusual materials, osmium and tungsten.
Areas with high concentrations of air-borne particulate matter are more
likely to experience fogs, because these particles are preferred nucleation sites for water
droplets. Smoke and soot are also very undesirable aesthetically.
Soot is formed during combustion when the supply of oxygen is insufficient for
complete conversion of carbon to carbon oxides. Its formation is mainly a problem in the
combustion of liquid and solid fuels (oil, coal, or wood), because molecular-scale mixing
of fuel and oxygen is not as easy here as it is in the combustion of natural gas (see below).
Combustion units (process furnaces, steam boilers and gas turbines) give rise to emissions of
carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Nitrogen oxide emissions are
most commonly reduced by combustion modifications that reduce temperatures and hence the
formation of thermal NOx. The techniques include low NOx burners, flue gas recirculation, and
reduced pre-heat. Nitrogen oxides can also be removed after they have formed by reduction to
nitrogen using Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) or Selective Catalytic Reduction
Water pollutant control.
Inhibition ability of mild steel corrosion of 4 amides (RCONH2 (marked as A4), RCONH– CH2–CH2OH (marked as A5), RCON(CH2–CH2OH)2 (marked as 6b) and RCONH–(CH2)2–NH– COR (marked as 7c) prepared as derivatives from aliphatic acid oxidatively synthesized from nparaffin of Vietnam crude oil, has been examined by electrochemical methods. The corrosion test has been performed in chloride 3% solution at room temperature. The inhibition efficiency has been evaluated through corrosion potential Ecor, corrosion current icor and some other corrosion parameters.
Safrol is a natural product, and presents especially in Sassafras oil with 80% abundance. Sassafras oil has been used for long time for treatment of some diseases such as influenza, trouble digestion, stomach and arthritis . Otherwise, Sassafras oil was also used in food and cosmetic industries. Some derivatives of safrol such as heliotropin is a precious perfume used widely in cosmetic industry. Heliotropin was prepared by oxidation of isosafrol [2, 3].