The essential oil industry is under threat from numerous issues at present. Rising
agricultural input costs, particularly petrochemical based fertilizers and fuels are squeezing
farmers’ profit margins. Rising food prices and the increasing value of housing and industrial
land prices is creating competition for land, particularly around populated areas. Adverse
weather conditions and changing climate are creating both short and long term problems.
Poor crop yields are occurring much more regularly than before because of unusually heavy
rain, hail, floods, heat-waves and cold snaps....
The graph shows estimated oil production capacity for several Gulf countries between 1990 and 2010. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
The olive (Olea europaea) is increasingly recognized as a crop of great economic and health importance world-wide. Olive growing in Italy is very important, but there is still a high degree of confusion regarding the genetic identity of cultivars. This book is a source of recently accumulated information on olive trees and on olive oil industry.
By 1980, fuel ethanol production had increased from a few million gallons
in the 1970s to 175 million gallons per year. During the 1990s, production
increased to 1.47 billion gallons, and total production for 2006 is expected
to be about 5.0 billion gallons. Annual U.S. plant capacity is now over 4.5
billion gallons, most of it currently in use. Demand is rising partly because a
number of States have banned (or soon will ban) methyl tertiary-butyl ether
(MTBE), and ethanol is taking over MTBE’s role (Dien et al., April 2002).
Ethanol provides a clean octane replacement for MTBE.
References to oil and gas production handbook, author Virgil B. Guthrie. Hopefully documents provide useful knowledge for engineering and technology students specializing in chemical industry - oil and gas.
Used by corporate training departments, colleges and universities worldwide, this is the most complete upstream guide available. Hyne provides an easy-to-understand explanation of complex topics with pictures, graphs and illustrations covering everything on how oil and gas is formed; how to find commercial quantities; how to drill, evaluate and complete a well; all the way through production and improved oil recovery.
The health-promoting effects attributed to olive oil, and the development of the olive oil industry have intensified the quest for new information, stimulating wide areas of research. This book is a source of recently accumulated information. It covers a broad range of topics from chemistry, technology, and quality assessment, to bioavailability and function of important molecules, recovery of bioactive compounds, preparation of olive oil-based functional products, and identification of novel pharmacological targets for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases....
Major oil spills attract the attention of the public and the media. In recent years,
this attention has created a global awareness of the risks of oil spills and the damage
they do to the environment. However, oil is a necessity in our industrial society, and
a major sustainer of our lifestyle. Most of the energy used in Canada and the United
States is for transportation that runs on oil and petroleum products. According to
trends in energy usage, this is not likely to decrease much in the future.
As early as the beginning of the 20th century Rudolf Diesel proposed vegetable oil as
fuel for his engine.1 A short time later, before and during World War Two, vegetable
oil was examined in “up-to-date” diesel engines. In 1940 first trials with vegetable oil
methyl and ethyl esters were carried out in France and, at the same time, scientists in
Belgium were using palm oil ethyl ester as a fuel for buses.2 In 1973, the oil crisis
refocused attention on and interest for local energy sources.
Interest in food lipids has grown dramatically in recent years as a result of findings related to their
health effects. Fats and oils have often been condemned because of their high energy value and due
to potential health problems associated with certain saturated fatty acids as well as trans fats.
However, lipids are important in that they provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins as
well as flavor, texture, and mouthfeel to foods.
Invite you to consult the ebook content, "Oil and gas production handbook" below. Contents of the document referred to the content you: Procell overview, reservoir and well heads, the oil and gas process,... Hopefully document content to meet the needs of learning, work effectively.
Despite a variety of processes and the availability of raw-material sources, the
widespread utilisation of annual plants in pulping has not been technically or
economically feasible in Western countries due to the lack of a simple and
environmentally efficient pulping method and the problems associated with raw
material storage and logistics.
An ideal non-wood pulping process is simple and environmentally efficient
and can be applied on a small scale.
The methods for obtaining simultaneously essential oil and shikimic acid from star anise fruit (Illicium verum Hook) were investigated. From obtained results, we chose a simple and effective method for desired purpose. With this method, distillation of essential oil and extraction of shikimic acid were simultaneously carried out in the round bottom flask of the Clevenger apparatus. The yield of essential oil and shikimic acid were 9.5% and 5.6% (r.m), respectively as well as the quality of the products is very good. ...
Pyrolysis of activated sewage sludge was investigated under inert conditions in a fluidised-bed to study the effects of temperature and gas residence time on the product distribution and composition with an aim to maximise the oil yield.
Environment-friendly treatment of sewage sludge has become tremendously important. Conversion ofsewage sludge into energy products by environment-friendly conversion process, with its energy recovery and environmental benefits, is being paid significant attention.
The alternative fuels that are derived from non-fossil source are very promising fuels for the future. Catalytic cracking of vegetable oil sludge is an advanced method for obtaining of bio- fuels. The huge waste in the vegetable oil manufacture could be converted to bio-fuel. Cracking of vegetable oil sludge by HY catalyst using MAT5000 instrument is a precious method for studying this catalytic cracking reaction. By catalytic cracking, the LPG gas, gasoline product, LCO and HCO products are also formed of vegetable oil sludge.
he product of the risk-neutral default intensity and the loss rate
equals the instantaneous credit spread. Like Duffee (1999) and Elton et al. (2001), we assume
a constant loss rate and allow the default intensity to vary stochastically over time. We model
each firm’s default intensity as a function of a low number of latent common factors and a latent
firm-specific factor. This extends the analysis of Duffee (1999), who estimates a separate model
for each firm. As in Duffee (1999), all factors follow square-root diffusion processes.
The aforementioned water scarcity problems, water quality problems, and climate-related
impacts will be a major challenge to businesses in the years ahead. It is increasingly clear
that the era of cheap and easy access to water is ending, posing a potentially greater threat
to businesses than the loss of any other natural resource, including fossil fuel resources.
This is because there are various alternatives for oil, but for many industrial processes, and
for human survival itself, there is no substitute for water.
Essential oils (also called volatile oils) generally extracted by
distillation from plants are hydrophobic liquids containing
volatile aromatic compounds. The essential oils are widely
used in perfumes, cosmetics as well as in food and drink as
flavor additives. Some essential oils show multiple pharmacological
activities and have been considered as the major active
fractions of herbal medicines [1–3].