Edible oils are mainly vegetable oils which have been subjected to several
processes to removed undesirable constituents. In order to make them suitable for
human consumption, most edible oils are subjected to refining processes, such as
neutralization, bleaching and deodorization. Among edible oils, only virgin olive
oil (a natural juice obtained by olive pressing), can be consumed without refining.
Edible oils are characterized by a wide range of physical and chemical prop-erties, since their composition depend on the type of oil (Rossell1991).
It gives me immense pleasure in introducing the book "Nanomaterials" based on state
of the art of un-doped and doped semiconductor metal oxide nanostructures, state of
the art of nano-composites as well as applied polymers, and their various potential
applications. This deals with nano-technological aspects of the synthesis, growth,
development, and potential applications of semiconductor nanostructure metal oxides.
The book “Advances in Diverse Industrial Applications of Nanocomposites” was well
thought about knitt ing several broad disciplines of nanocomposites in mind. A glance
through the pages of science and engineering literature shows that the use of nanocomposites
for emerging technologies represents one of the most active areas of research
and development throughout the fi elds of chemistry, physics, life sciences, and related
In contrast to our previous study (Barth & Marx, 2008) dealing with a currently decreasing
research field (high-temperature superconductors) we analyzed here a topic which has
raised a strongly increasing interest among researchers: research activities around carbon
nanotubes (CNTs or NTs). Carbon nanotubes (often named only nanotubes) are graphite
sheets rolled up into cylinders with diameters of the order of a few nanometers and up to
some millimeters in length with at least one end capped with a hemisphere of the fullerene
This potentially unique work offers various approaches on the implementation of
nanowires. As it is widely known, nanotechnology presents the control of matter at
the nanoscale and nanodimensions within few nanometers, whereas this exclusive
phenomenon enables us to determine novel applications.
Nanowire technology has considerably improved and developed many technologies
and industry sectors in the field of IT, communications, computer technology,
medicine devices, sensors applications and many others....
Nanotechnology has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade, mostly because of
the rapid advances in nano-fabrication techniques employed to fabricate the nanodevices.
Nano-fabrication can be divided into two categories: the first is the so-called
“bottom up” approach, in which nano-structures are created either by chemical synthesis
of nano-wires, nanotubes and nano-particles, or by self-assembly of nano-objects or thin
layers to form quasi-periodic arrays or phase separation patterns....
Nanotechnology began as a theoretical concept in 1959 in a talk by Nobel physicist Richard
Feynman. By the 1980s the theory of nanotechnology became more of a fact when new
microscopes were developed allowing scientists to see nanometers, down to one-billionth of
a meter (Brown, 2008).
Chapter 3 INHALATION HAZARDS IN REFINERIES
Operations of the petroleum industry can logically be divided into production, refining, and marketing. Production includes locating and drilling oil wells, pumping and pretreating the crude oil, recovering gas condensate, and shipping these raw products to the refinery or, in the case of gas, to commercial sales outlets. Refining, which extends to the conversion of crude to a finished salable product, includes oil refining and the manufacture of various chemicals derived from petroleum.
This book introduces a new concept around the organization and development of noble
metal. Noble metals are popularly used across the world. This book contains 19
contributions on the subject.
The first chapter contributed by Professor Matsunaga deals with the principles of noble
metals, the dielectric screening properties and many body effects of noble metal. The
second chapter written by Dr. Geraldes deals with noble metal as a resource and its
Graphene, a single layer of graphite formed by a repetitive hexagonal lattice, has recently
raised extensive interest of the world-wide scientific community since it has
been obtained successfully in 2004. The graphene is of significant value for the fundamental
studies of condensed matter and quantum physics.
Quantum dots are one of the most promising types of nanoparticles, which are
exceptionally useful for variety of new applications Because of their unique properties.
Examples of such applications include optics and LASER, electronics, and biological
applications. The variety of quantum dot applications is so wide, that it is impossible
for a single book to cover all the latest developments and the new trends of
In the last few years, Nanoparticles and their applications dramatically diverted
science in the direction of brand new philosophy.
The properties of many conventional materials changed when formed from
nanoparticles. because nanoparticles have a greater surface area per weight than larger
particles which causes them to be more reactive and effective than other molecules.