Operatorial approach

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  • Alump sum price may be called for, or a series of lump sums. This is best suited to easily defined, relatively simple constructions, involving little below-ground work. However, some quite large above-ground constructions are paid for by lump sum. Sometimes a separate section of the bill for pricing allows for the foundation work of a building to be paid for ‘on measure’. In some kinds of civil engineering work the lump sum payment method can pose serious risks upon a contractor, causing him to add a substantial sum to his tender.

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  • The above table provides an overview of the number of deposit accounts held by deposit-taking finan- cial institutions in selected African countries. The data reveals that particularly savings banks (postal financial services) and microfinance institutions in Subsaharan Africa add significantly to the supply of banking accounts by conventional banks. In addition as Koigi, Kihwele and Wright, noted (p.

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  • The research evidence furthermore shows that social media offer specific opportunities for the four strategic challenges of European Education and Training policies in the years leading up to 2020 (European Commission, 2008g) and can thus contribute to modernising Education and Training in Europe. Enhancing innovation and creativity: Social media support more engaging and playful approaches, provide new formats for creative expression, and encourage learners and teachers to experiment with different, innovative, ways of articulating their thoughts and ideas. The Learning 2.

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  • Rodents often spend an equal amount of time exploring both objects, or conspecifics, in the training process. It is important to take into account any preference for an object other than in testing and training. Continue to discuss importance of assessing preferences for objects used in object recognition tasks in Section 6 below.

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  • The exposure-response function (quantitative variation of a health outcome per unit of pollutant load) was derived by a meta-analytical assessment of various (international) studies selected from the peer-reviewed epidemiological literature. The effect estimate (gradient) was calculated as the variance weighted average across the results of all studies included in the meta-analysis. In this project, the impact of air pollution on mortality is based on the long-term effect.

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  • Research should focus on the development and production of new high-affinity, non-immunoglobulin protein scaffolds as an alternative to antibodies or oligonucleotides. Projects should aim at developing new, efficient and safe therapies by combining high specificity with stable production characteristics. Projects should include preclinical studies, methods for scale-up and GMP as appropriate, should combine academic, clinical and industrial expertise and implement a translational approach towards clinical trials (clinical proof-of-concept and/or phase I/II clinical studies).

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  • While almost all the students who volunteered to participate in this study acknowledged in the interviews that their primary motivation for participation was the hope that they could achieve the coveted score of at least 7.0 in Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking, as well as an Overall score of 7.0 – the English language proficiency requirement for an application for an Australian Skilled Independent Resident visa in 2010 or for Nursing Registration – only six out of the 40 students managed to do so. Of these six, four had already achieved an Overall score of 7.0 or 7.

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  • Important player for the regulation of gingival connective tissue homeostasis is the fibroblast, cell able to synthesize and breakdown the collagen fibers and other proteins from the ground substance. In vitro studies have shown that fibroblasts from human normal gingiva produce collagens type I and type III, while cells derived from gingiva of patients with chronic periodontitis failed to produce detectable amounts of type III collagen (Hammouda et al., 1980; Chavier et al., 1984, as cited in Bartold & Narayanan, 2006)....

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  • They use geological and distribution data on the island’s 1,284 plant genera and more than 2,000 endemic plant taxa to identify 19 biomes there, and they describe complex conservation challenges. The next chapter by Benny Chan and Pei-Fen Lee explores the biogeography of the barnacles of Taiwan, relating taxon distributions to coastal geomorphology and the complex array of oceanic currents around the island. Global climate changes in ocean water temperature may permit southerly, warmwater taxa to expand northward, invading habitat presently occupied by coldwater taxa....

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  • Just as the share ownership structure delineates a firm’s agency problem, it also impacts the firm’s reporting. When an owner effectively controls a firm, he/she also controls the production of the firm’s accounting information and reporting policies. When the controlling owner is entrenched by his/her voting power and there is a large separation of the voting and cash flow rights, the credibility of the accounting information is reduced.

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  • Seeking for feedback is vital for learning and putting together a good article. This is one of the main reasons why it is recommended for researchers to cooperate closely. This cooperation can mean either writing together, or commenting on the text written by others. From the perspective of effectiveness, it is important to ask for feedback on small increments and as frequently as possible. This way the feedback is more precise and easier to utilise. You should start seeking for comments already at the stage when you only have an initial idea for an article. This can be done,...

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  • Among these taxa, bacteria are very important because they play a crucial role in most biogeochemical cycles in marine ecosystems (Fenchel, 1988), taking part in the decomposition of organic matter and the cycling of nutrients. Bacteria are also an important source of food for a variety of marine organisms (Das et al., 2006), and their activity has a major impact on ecosystem metabolism and function.

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  • We have mainly regarded elderly people’s use of information technology in their daily lives as ICT training of elderly people. We have also discussed the possibilities and limitations that technology raises for information, activity and for better contact with others. The use of ICT in nursing and care of elderly people mainly implies in this connection the use of smart-home technology in houses for old people and people with dementia. This technology involves the use of integrated ICT components.

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  • It is recommended not to fix the extractor directly to the projector since the vibrations created by the rotation of the ventilation system might disturb the micro-mirrors*. It is therefore better to move it further away in the pipe system. Although being moved, the extractor has to remain accessible to ensure its maintenance (cleaning, replacement in case of failure). Please be careful not to circulate air from one lamphouse to another. You might have to equip...

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  • A key reason is that agricultural production has few technical (dis) economies of scale, implying that a range of production forms can coexist. A look at the 300 or so publicly listed companies in table 4 illustrates this point. Even though farming accounts for 22 percent of the global agricultural value chain, it makes up a mere 0.2 percent of equity market capitalization. As of October 2009, there were only seven publicly listed farming companies worldwide, three in Brazil and Argentina and four in Ukraine and Russia.

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  • Mutual funds have been a significant source of investment in both government and corporate securities. Decades it has been the monopoly of the state with UTI being the key player, with invested funds exceeding Rs.300 bn. The state-owned insurance companies also hold a portfolio of stocks. Presently, numerous mutual funds exist, including private and foreign companies and mainly state- owned Banks. Foreign participation in mutual funds and asset management companies (AUM) is permitted on a case-by-case basis.

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  • Individuals accounted for the majority of listed subjects in the SARs; however, filers noted a few as business entities and, in some cases, identified a family’s trust fund or retirement plan. Approximately 65 percent of the subjects found in the 641 SARs were either: a) associated with some kind of business (named or un-named) or occupation13 ; b) identified by a job title, profession or other reference (Physician, Attorney, Restau- rant Owner, Retired, etc.); or c) identified by a business name or the nature of the business if the subject was listed as a company.

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  • This is why, in the State of the Union address, President Barroso called for new thinking for Europe – to draw the consequences of the challenges we are now facing and that are fundamentally changing our world. There can be no growth without reform and no way of confronting our challenges unless we do it together. The State of the Union speech launched ambitious ideas for the long term framing of the EU – a deep and genuine economic union, based on a political union.

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  • A literature review and web search were undertaken for all studied aspects of forest goods and services – their classification, characterisation, importance, trends, valuation, and the financing mechanisms for their provision. Concerning the classification and characterisation of non-market forest goods and services, various studies on terminology, classification and taxonomy of forest goods and services, as well as on the user groups, ownership structure and public access in the EU, were reviewed. The reviewed studies were mainly focusing on the EU scale (e.g.

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  • TV commercials for tobacco also came under fire. When th were barred by Congress in 1972, cigarette makers started talkin about how to exploit the movies in a more systematic way, usin Hollywood to position their brands in the global marketplace.

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