Optical phenomena

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  • Rapid development of optoelectronic devices and laser techniques poses an important task of creating and studying, from one side, the structures capable of effectively converting, modulating, and recording optical data in a wide range of radiation energy densities and frequencies, from another side, the new schemes and approaches capable to activate and simulate the modern features. It is well known that nonlinear optical phenomena and nonlinear optical materials have the promising place to resolve these complicated technical tasks....

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  • The book embraces a wide spectrum of problems falling under the concepts of "Quantum optics" and "Laser experiments". These actively developing branches of physics are of great significance both for theoretical understanding of the quantum nature of optical phenomena and for practical applications.

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  • Most of the material in this volume is new. The first three chapters deal with three important fiber-optic components--fiber-based gratings, couplers, and interferometers--that serve as the building blocks of lightwave technology. In view of the enormous impact of rare-earth-doped fibers, amplifiers and lasers made by using such fibers are covered in Chapters 4 and 5. The last three chapters describe important applications of nonlinear fiber optics and are devoted to pulse-compression techniques, fiber-optic communication systems, and soliton-based transmission schemes....

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  • Physical Phenomena at High Magnetic Fields-IV (PPHMF-IV) was the fourth conference sponsored by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL). The previous conferences were held in May, 1991, 1995, and 1998. These meetings brought together experts in scientific research areas where high magnetic fields could make an important impact. PPHMF-III devoted substantial time to reviewing the state of many fields in regard to the role of high magnetic fields, such as semiconductors, heavy fermions, superconductivity, and molecular conductors.

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  • All optical phenomena experience interference effects at some level. Even light from an incandescent light bulb has partial coherence that can lead to constructive or destructive interference when multiple light paths are combined at a detector. The ubiquitous nature of interference underlies many phenomena and techniques in biological optics. This chapter lays the foundation for interferometry applied to biology and medicine.

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  • (BQ) This paper describes the heat source diameter of single pulse discharge in electrical discharge machining. To observe the discharge plasma, SiC and Ga2O3 single crystals were used as the electrode material since they are optically transparent and electrically conductive. It was found that plasma diameter expands within a few microseconds after dielectric breakdown and the plasma diameter is much larger than the discharge crater.

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  • The Springer Series in Optical Sciences, under the leadership of Editor-in-Chief William T. Rhodes, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, provides an expanding selection of research monographs in all major areas of optics: lasers and quantum optics, ultrafast phenomena, optical spectroscopy techniques, optoelectronics, quantum information, information optics, applied laser technology, industrial applications, and other topics of contemporary interest. With this broad coverage of topics, the series is of use to all research scientists and engineers who need up-to-date reference books.

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  • Lecture Biochemistry (2nd edition): Chapter 4 introduce Amino Acids. In this chapter students will be able to understand: Amino Acids: Building Blocks of proteins, Acid-Base chemistry of amino acids, reactions of Amino Acids, optical activity and stereochemistry of Amino Acids, spectroscopic properties of Amino Acids, separation and analysis of a.a. Mixtures.

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  • Fluorescein angiography is a remarkable in vivo technique, because it is able to resolve the minute capillaries in the neighborhood of the foveal avascular zone which measure only 3.5 μm in diameter (top). This is half the diameter of red blood cells. Because of their small diameter, the capillaries in the vicinity of the foveal avascular zone cannot be perfused with whole blood, since the red blood cells have to change their shape in order to pass, thus requiring much more space (bottom).

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  • Brillouin scattering was discovered in 1922 by Louis Brillouin [1]. It is one of a number of characteristic scattering phenomena that occur when light interacts with solid, liquid or gaseous media and corresponds to the scattering of light from thermally-induced acoustical waves (propagating pressure/density waves) present in media at all temperatures. At normal light levels the amount of scattering is small. The characteristics of the scattering can offer interesting information about the properties of the medium (temperature, pressure) and form the basis for remote fibre sensor devices.

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  • Ferroelectricity has been one of the most used and studied phenomena in both scientific and industrial communities. Properties of ferroelectrics materials make them particularly suitable for a wide range of applications, ranging from sensors and actuators to optical or memory devices. Since the discovery of ferroelectricity in Rochelle Salt (which used to be used since 1665) in 1921 by J. Valasek, numerous applications using such an effect have been developed.

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  • The great Italian Gestalt psychologist Vittorio Benussi was one of the first to be initiated into the mysteries of experimental psychology by Witasek. Benussi was influenced in particular by the topic of Witasek's habilitation thesis, which had defended the view that optical illusions cannot be illusions of judgment, since the same illusion can be present even when we deliberately do not allow our judgments to be misled by the appearances.

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