Rapid development of optoelectronic devices and laser techniques poses an important
task of creating and
studying, from one side, the structures capable of effectively converting, modulating,
and recording optical data in a wide range of radiation energy densities and
frequencies, from another side, the new schemes and approaches capable to activate and
simulate the modern features. It is well known that nonlinear optical phenomena and
nonlinear optical materials have the promising place to resolve these complicated
Most of the material in this volume is new. The first three chapters deal with three important fiber-optic components--fiber-based gratings, couplers, and interferometers--that serve as the building blocks of lightwave technology. In view of the enormous impact of rare-earth-doped fibers, amplifiers and lasers made by using such fibers are covered in Chapters 4 and 5. The last three chapters describe important applications of nonlinear fiber optics and are devoted to pulse-compression techniques, fiber-optic communication systems, and soliton-based transmission schemes....
Coherent Lightwave Systems
The lightwave systems discussed so far are based on a simple digital modulation scheme in which an electrical bit stream modulates the intensity of an optical carrier inside the optical transmitter and the optical signal transmitted through the ﬁber link is incident directly on an optical receiver, which converts it to the original digital signal in the electrical domain. Such a scheme is referred to as intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD).
Abstract: “Brown dwarfs” is the collective name for objects more massive than giant
planets such as Jupiter but less massive than M dwarf stars. This review gives a brief
description of the classification and chemistry of low mass dwarfs. The current spectral
classification of stars includes L and T dwarfs that encompass the coolest known stars
and substellar objects. The relatively low atmospheric temperatures and high total
pressures in substellar dwarfs lead to molecular gas and condensate chemistry.