Hydrogen economy represents the future of human civilization. Limited resources of our planet are compelling us to turn to renewable clean energy resources and hydrogen figures prominently as the energy carrier of a future sustainable energy system. There are significant challenges to be overcome in order to make hydrogen viable, in production, storage and power generation, while safety of operation is an ever-present factor that determines success or failure of a proposed solution.
During nuclear fusion, the sun’s extremely high pressure and temperature
causes hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei (the central cores of the
atoms) to fuse to become one helium atom. But the helium atom contains less
mass than the four hydrogen atoms that fused. Some matter is lost during
nuclear fusion. The lost matter is emitted into space as radiant energy.
It takes millions of years for the energy in the sun’s core to make its way to the
solar surface, and then just a little over eight minutes to travel the 93 million miles...
The presence of chlorine in alternative fuels (e.g., sewage sludge, municipal solid waste
or incineration ash, chlorinated biomass,) has both direct and indirect implications on
cement kiln emissions and performance. Methods have been developed to properly
manage chlorine and its potential implications – but it is important that these implications
be recognized and managed. Trace levels of chlorine in feed materials can lead to the
formation of acidic gases such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF)
Fenton's Reagent requires soluble Fe2+
to form OH•. This optimal reaction
occurs under relatively low pH conditions (e.g., pH of 2 to 4). pH adjustment in
the treatment area is often necessary to enable the oxidation process to proceed
efficiently. This can be accomplished by either acidifying the hydrogen peroxide or
by adding a chelating acid. Using a ferrous sulfate solution `simultaneously adjusts
aquifer pH and adds the iron catalyst needed for Fenton's Reagent.
This book covers a number of topics in heat and mass transfer processes for a variety
of industrial applications. The research papers provide information and guidelines in
terms of theory, mathematical modeling and experimental findings in many research
areas relevant to the design of industrial processes and equipment. The equipment
includes air heaters, cooling towers, chemical system vaporization, high temperature
polymerization and hydrogen production by steam reforming.