This chapter discusses the problematic nature of interfacial
sciences when constrained to the mesoscale. Interfacial
sciences are trapped between the atomistic and the three-
dimensional bulk regimes - the mesoscale. We experience a
breakdown of phenomenological descriptions used to
characterize macrosystems. Furthermore, submicrometer
systems with their fractal-like dimension cannot be adequately
described with quantum or molecular interaction theories. The
challenge of describing the mesoscale for the...
Application of polymers from renewable resources - also identified as
biopolymers - has a large potential market due to the current emphasis on
sustainable technology. For optimal R&D achievements and hence benefits
from these market opportunities, it is essential to combine the expertise
available in the vast range of different disciplines in biopolymer science and
The structures of copper amine oxidases from various sources show good
similarity, suggesting similar catalytic mechanisms for all members of this
enzyme family. However, the optimal substrates for each member differ,
depending on the source of the enzyme and its location.
Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A3 (EphA3, EC 188.8.131.52) is a member of a
unique branch of the kinome in which downstream signaling occurs in both
ligand- and receptor-expressing cells. Consequently, the ephrins and ephrin
receptor tyrosine kinases often mediate processes involving cell–cell con-tact, including cellular adhesion or repulsion, developmental remodeling
and neuronal mapping.
A representative model of mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism was broken
down into its extremal independent currents and compared with experimen-tal data obtained from liver mitochondria incubated with pyruvate as a
substrate but in the absence of added adenosine diphosphate.
d-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) has recently become of interest as a biocat-alyst for industrial applications and for therapeutic treatments. It has been
used in gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies, in which its production of
H2O2 in tumor cells can be regulated by administration of substrate. This
approach is limited by the locally low O2 concentration and the high Km
for this substrate.
Acomputational approach is used to analyse temporal gene
expression in the context of metabolic regulation. It is based
on the assumption that cells developed optimal adaptation
strategies to changing environmental conditions. Time-dependent enzyme profiles are calculatedwhichoptimize the
function of a metabolic pathway under the constraint of
limited total enzymeamount.For linearmodel pathways it is
shown thatwave-like enzyme profiles are optimal for a rapid
Only 2% of the known natural products with acetylenic
bonds area-alkynoates. Their polarized, conjugated triple
bond is an optimal target for an enzymic hydration.
Therefore they are good substrates for the enzymes
involved in metabolism of acetylenic compounds, resulting
in products that are suitable for bacterial growth. We
isolated a Pseudomonas putida strain growing on
2-butynedioate as well as on propynoate, and determined
the metabolic pathways of these two a-alkynoates.
The HeLa cell terminal uridylyltransferase (TUTase) that
specifically modifies the 3¢-end of mammalian U6 small
nuclear RNA (snRNA) was characterized with respect to
ionic dependence and substrate requirements. Optimal
enzyme activity was obtained at moderate ionic strength
(60 mMKCl) anddependedon thepresenceof 5 mMMgCl2.
In vitrosynthesizedU6 snRNA without a 3¢-terminal UMP
residue was not accepted as substrate.