The aim of this book is to illuminate the essential activity of translation from a number of
perspectives: historical and contemporary, theoretical and practical. At the same time, the
contents of the present volume speak in many modes and voices to literary and cultural
history, and to cross-cultural relations through the ages.The book draws on several
hundred texts, translations, and texts about translation, ranging from classical antiquity to the present.
Translations from a parallel corpus implicitly deals with the granularity problem as ﬁner sense distinctions are only relevant as far as they are lexicalized in the target translations. It also facilitates the integration of WSD in multilingual applications such as multilingual Information Retrieval (IR) or Machine Translation (MT).
In statistical machine translation, a researcher seeks to determine whether some innovation (e.g., a new feature, model, or inference algorithm) improves translation quality in comparison to a baseline system. To answer this question, he runs an experiment to evaluate the behavior of the two systems on held-out data. In this paper, we consider how to make such experiments more statistically reliable.
Typically, the lexicon models used in statistical machine translation systems do not include any kind of linguistic or contextual information, which often leads to problems in performing a correct word sense disambiguation. One way to deal with this problem within the statistical framework is to use maximum entropy methods. In this paper, we present how to use this type of information within a statistical machine translation system. We show that it is possible to signiﬁcantly decrease training and test corpus perplexity of the translation models. ...
The ﬁrst function, sperm cell formation, occurs in the two testes. The
formation of sperm requires a temperature that is a few degrees cooler
than the temperature of the rest of the body. How is this temperature
reduction produced? The testes are suspended within a sac called the
scrotum. Because it is not located within the body cavity, the temperature
of the scrotum is a few degrees lower than normal body temperature. The
scrotum is an adaptation that has evolved to increase the chances of pro-
ducing healthy sperm.
Inside the testes are a great many tiny tubes, or tubules.
How variations in genes contribute to variations in disease risk has
been a subject of study for more than 100 years (IOM, 2006). Until fairly
recently research focused on single genes that give rise to rare genetic diseases
such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington’s disease.
Machine Translation is a well–established ﬁeld, yet the majority of current systems translate sentences in isolation, losing valuable contextual information from previously translated sentences in the discourse. One important type of contextual information concerns who or what a coreferring pronoun corefers to (i.e., its antecedent). Languages differ signiﬁcantly in how they achieve coreference, and awareness of antecedents is important in choosing the correct pronoun.
O’Reilly & Associates brings diverse innovators together to nurture the ideas that spark revolutionary industries. We specialize in documenting the latest tools and systems, translating the innovator’s knowledge into useful skills for those in the trenches. Visit conferences.oreilly.com for our upcoming events. Safari Bookshelf (safari.oreilly.com) is the premier online reference library for programmers and IT professionals. Conduct searches across more than 1,000 books. Subscribers can zero in on answers to time-critical questions in a matter of seconds.
Automatic word alignment is a key step in training statistical machine translation systems. Despite much recent work on word alignment methods, alignment accuracy increases often produce little or no improvements in machine translation quality. In this work we analyze a recently proposed agreement-constrained EM algorithm for unsupervised alignment models. We attempt to tease apart the effects that this simple but effective modiﬁcation has on alignment precision and recall trade-offs, and how rare and common words are affected across several language pairs. ...
C# programmers: no more translating data structures from C++ or Java to
use in your programs! Mike McMillan provides a tutorial on how to use data
structures and algorithms plus the first comprehensive reference for C# implementation
of data structures and algorithms found in the .NET Framework
library, as well as those developed by the programmer.
This chapter describes how to log into the CSS and configure an IP address,
subnet mask, and default route. Included in this chapter is a description of the
system software. It also contains information on using the Offline Diagnostic
Monitor (Offline DM) menu. Information in this chapter applies to all CSS
models except where noted.
CSS software is available in a Standard or Enhanced feature set.
This is the first Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) book to provide a comprehensive
discussion of the major data structures and algorithms. Here, instead of having
to translate material on C++ or Java, the professional or student VB.NET
programmer will find a tutorial on how to use data structures and algorithms
and a reference for implementation using VB.NET for data structures and
algorithms from the .NET Framework Class Library as well as those that
must be developed by the programmer.
Damage costs to material and crops, cleaning costs due to soiling, and so on,
although not easy to determine, can be estimated as a function of pollutant levels (Rid-
ker, 1967). However, there is the problem of translating into monetary value the effects
on health resulting from air pollution.
Works of art engaged explicitly with the body serve to critique the assumptions
of idealist aesthetics, but they also have an unanticipated effect that will be the
topic of my investigation here. Whether or not we interpret these works as
aesthetic, they summon images of disability. Most frequently, they register as
wounded or disabled bodies, representations of irrationality or cognitive
disability, or effects of warfare, disease, or accidents.
For reference purposes, I’ll mention some of the common ways
to document requirements and planning information. If nothing
else, knowing the common lingo helps translate between the
various methods used by different organizations. You’ll find
some teams document the requirements informally: “Oh,
requirements…just go talk to Fred.” Others have elaborate
templates and review procedures that break these documents
into insanely small (and possibly overlapping) pieces owned by
• Marketing requirements document (MRD).
More specifically, we must further examine
health beliefs, and food beliefs and
practices that have symbolic or traditional
importance to determine how knowledge,
beliefs and attitudes translate into eating
behaviour in older adults, especially at
advanced ages. More research is needed to
clarify the relative contribution of income,
ethnic background and other personal predictors
of healthy eating – self-control,
emotions, resistance to change, time constraints,
lack of knowledge – and environmental
factors governing food availability
What everybody wants to know, of course, is how
insights from physics might translate into effective
therapies that can kill cancer cells (figure 3). Most
existing cancer treatments involve trying to remove a
tumour surgically or destroying it with radiation, cou-
pled with chemotherapy in which a variety of drug
regimes try to stymie cell division, block problematic
gene pathways or retard angiogenesis. Although drug
design is informed by an understanding of molecular
and cell biology, it is still something of an art, depend-
ent on long and costly clinical trials.
We observe that (1) how a given named entity (NE) is translated (i.e., either semantically or phonetically) depends greatly on its associated entity type, and (2) entities within an aligned pair should share the same type. Also, (3) those initially detected NEs are anchors, whose information should be used to give certainty scores when selecting candidates. From this basis, an integrated model is thus proposed in this paper to jointly identify and align bilingual named entities between Chinese and English. ...
We present a general framework to incorporate prior knowledge such as heuristics or linguistic features in statistical generative word alignment models. Prior knowledge plays a role of probabilistic soft constraints between bilingual word pairs that shall be used to guide word alignment model training. We investigate knowledge that can be derived automatically from entropy principle and bilingual latent semantic analysis and show how they can be applied to improve translation performance.
Words of foreign origin are referred to as borrowed words or loanwords. A loanword is usually imported to Chinese by phonetic transliteration if a translation is not easily available. Semantic transliteration is seen as a good tradition in introducing foreign words to Chinese. Not only does it preserve how a word sounds in the source language, it also carries forward the word’s original semantic attributes. This paper attempts to automate the semantic transliteration process for the first time. ...