Xem 1-20 trên 21 kết quả Or how to translate english
  • The aim of this book is to illuminate the essential activity of translation from a number of perspectives: historical and contemporary, theoretical and practical. At the same time, the contents of the present volume speak in many modes and voices to literary and cultural history, and to cross-cultural relations through the ages.The book draws on several hundred texts, translations, and texts about translation, ranging from classical antiquity to the present.

    pdf664p dangnga 16-08-2012 240 113   Download

  • Translations from a parallel corpus implicitly deals with the granularity problem as finer sense distinctions are only relevant as far as they are lexicalized in the target translations. It also facilitates the integration of WSD in multilingual applications such as multilingual Information Retrieval (IR) or Machine Translation (MT).

    pdf6p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 16 2   Download

  • In statistical machine translation, a researcher seeks to determine whether some innovation (e.g., a new feature, model, or inference algorithm) improves translation quality in comparison to a baseline system. To answer this question, he runs an experiment to evaluate the behavior of the two systems on held-out data. In this paper, we consider how to make such experiments more statistically reliable.

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  • Typically, the lexicon models used in statistical machine translation systems do not include any kind of linguistic or contextual information, which often leads to problems in performing a correct word sense disambiguation. One way to deal with this problem within the statistical framework is to use maximum entropy methods. In this paper, we present how to use this type of information within a statistical machine translation system. We show that it is possible to significantly decrease training and test corpus perplexity of the translation models. ...

    pdf8p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 11 1   Download

  • The first function, sperm cell formation, occurs in the two testes. The formation of sperm requires a temperature that is a few degrees cooler than the temperature of the rest of the body. How is this temperature reduction produced? The testes are suspended within a sac called the scrotum. Because it is not located within the body cavity, the temperature of the scrotum is a few degrees lower than normal body temperature. The scrotum is an adaptation that has evolved to increase the chances of pro- ducing healthy sperm. Inside the testes are a great many tiny tubes, or tubules.

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  • How variations in genes contribute to variations in disease risk has been a subject of study for more than 100 years (IOM, 2006). Until fairly recently research focused on single genes that give rise to rare genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington’s disease.

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  • Machine Translation is a well–established field, yet the majority of current systems translate sentences in isolation, losing valuable contextual information from previously translated sentences in the discourse. One important type of contextual information concerns who or what a coreferring pronoun corefers to (i.e., its antecedent). Languages differ significantly in how they achieve coreference, and awareness of antecedents is important in choosing the correct pronoun.

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  • O’Reilly & Associates brings diverse innovators together to nurture the ideas that spark revolutionary industries. We specialize in documenting the latest tools and systems, translating the innovator’s knowledge into useful skills for those in the trenches. Visit conferences.oreilly.com for our upcoming events. Safari Bookshelf (safari.oreilly.com) is the premier online reference library for programmers and IT professionals. Conduct searches across more than 1,000 books. Subscribers can zero in on answers to time-critical questions in a matter of seconds.

    pdf336p shop_123 08-05-2013 18 2   Download

  • Automatic word alignment is a key step in training statistical machine translation systems. Despite much recent work on word alignment methods, alignment accuracy increases often produce little or no improvements in machine translation quality. In this work we analyze a recently proposed agreement-constrained EM algorithm for unsupervised alignment models. We attempt to tease apart the effects that this simple but effective modification has on alignment precision and recall trade-offs, and how rare and common words are affected across several language pairs. ...

    pdf8p hongphan_1 15-04-2013 11 1   Download

  • C# programmers: no more translating data structures from C++ or Java to use in your programs! Mike McMillan provides a tutorial on how to use data structures and algorithms plus the first comprehensive reference for C# implementation of data structures and algorithms found in the .NET Framework library, as well as those developed by the programmer.

    pdf366p thanhdat1004 03-11-2009 340 160   Download

  • This chapter describes how to log into the CSS and configure an IP address, subnet mask, and default route. Included in this chapter is a description of the system software. It also contains information on using the Offline Diagnostic Monitor (Offline DM) menu. Information in this chapter applies to all CSS models except where noted. CSS software is available in a Standard or Enhanced feature set.

    pdf324p phongthinh 07-08-2009 133 26   Download

  • This is the first Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) book to provide a comprehensive discussion of the major data structures and algorithms. Here, instead of having to translate material on C++ or Java, the professional or student VB.NET programmer will find a tutorial on how to use data structures and algorithms and a reference for implementation using VB.NET for data structures and algorithms from the .NET Framework Class Library as well as those that must be developed by the programmer.

    pdf412p tailieuvip13 24-07-2012 70 23   Download

  • Damage costs to material and crops, cleaning costs due to soiling, and so on, although not easy to determine, can be estimated as a function of pollutant levels (Rid- ker, 1967). However, there is the problem of translating into monetary value the effects on health resulting from air pollution.

    pdf14p doipassword 01-02-2013 15 3   Download

  • Works of art engaged explicitly with the body serve to critique the assumptions of idealist aesthetics, but they also have an unanticipated effect that will be the topic of my investigation here. Whether or not we interpret these works as aesthetic, they summon images of disability. Most frequently, they register as wounded or disabled bodies, representations of irrationality or cognitive disability, or effects of warfare, disease, or accidents.

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  • For reference purposes, I’ll mention some of the common ways to document requirements and planning information. If nothing else, knowing the common lingo helps translate between the various methods used by different organizations. You’ll find some teams document the requirements informally: “Oh, requirements…just go talk to Fred.” Others have elaborate templates and review procedures that break these documents into insanely small (and possibly overlapping) pieces owned by different people. • Marketing requirements document (MRD).

    pdf38p tainhacmienphi 25-02-2013 14 4   Download

  • More specifically, we must further examine health beliefs, and food beliefs and practices that have symbolic or traditional importance to determine how knowledge, beliefs and attitudes translate into eating behaviour in older adults, especially at advanced ages. More research is needed to clarify the relative contribution of income, ethnic background and other personal predictors of healthy eating – self-control, emotions, resistance to change, time constraints, lack of knowledge – and environmental factors governing food availability and cost.

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  • What everybody wants to know, of course, is how insights from physics might translate into effective therapies that can kill cancer cells (figure 3). Most existing cancer treatments involve trying to remove a tumour surgically or destroying it with radiation, cou- pled with chemotherapy in which a variety of drug regimes try to stymie cell division, block problematic gene pathways or retard angiogenesis. Although drug design is informed by an understanding of molecular and cell biology, it is still something of an art, depend- ent on long and costly clinical trials.

    pdf12p taisaokhongthedung 09-01-2013 26 1   Download

  • We observe that (1) how a given named entity (NE) is translated (i.e., either semantically or phonetically) depends greatly on its associated entity type, and (2) entities within an aligned pair should share the same type. Also, (3) those initially detected NEs are anchors, whose information should be used to give certainty scores when selecting candidates. From this basis, an integrated model is thus proposed in this paper to jointly identify and align bilingual named entities between Chinese and English. ...

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  • We present a general framework to incorporate prior knowledge such as heuristics or linguistic features in statistical generative word alignment models. Prior knowledge plays a role of probabilistic soft constraints between bilingual word pairs that shall be used to guide word alignment model training. We investigate knowledge that can be derived automatically from entropy principle and bilingual latent semantic analysis and show how they can be applied to improve translation performance.

    pdf8p hongvang_1 16-04-2013 11 1   Download

  • Words of foreign origin are referred to as borrowed words or loanwords. A loanword is usually imported to Chinese by phonetic transliteration if a translation is not easily available. Semantic transliteration is seen as a good tradition in introducing foreign words to Chinese. Not only does it preserve how a word sounds in the source language, it also carries forward the word’s original semantic attributes. This paper attempts to automate the semantic transliteration process for the first time. ...

    pdf8p hongvang_1 16-04-2013 11 1   Download

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