Kneser-Ney (1995) smoothing and its variants are generally recognized as having the best perplexity of any known method for estimating N-gram language models. Kneser-Ney smoothing, however, requires nonstandard N-gram counts for the lowerorder models used to smooth the highestorder model. For some applications, this makes Kneser-Ney smoothing inappropriate or inconvenient.
Working out where great ideas come from
is one of the big puzzles of modern
management. Corporate research
laboratories and in-house product
development groups are only part of the
answer. Innovative products and processes
can come from start-ups, competitors,
university campuses and ordinary
Whatever may be thought to the contrary, on account of the remoteness of the subject from ordinary topics, no sooner does one take up the study of Ainu in real earnest than he finds that the collection of words and arranging them in the form of vocabulary has by no means been neglected. For, to say nothing of those tabulated by Japanese (the Moshiogusa to wit), since the year 1730, when Philipp Johann von Strachlenberg of Stockholm published his Der Word- und Destliche Theil von Europa und Asia, quite a number of lists of words have appeared. Yet amid all...
In recent years the study of numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations has seen many new developments. This second edition of the author's pioneering text is fully revised and updated to acknowledge many of these developments. It includes a complete treatment of linear multistep methods whilst maintaining its unique and comprehensive emphasis on Runge-Kutta methods and general linear methods.
Although the specialist topics are taken to an advanced level, the entry point to the volume as a whole is not especially demanding.
Normal, ordinary và usual
Phương Hoa từ Việt Nam hỏi: "Tôi học tiếng Anh tại trường cấp ba được ba năm nhưng tôi vẫn không thể phân biệt được sự khác nhau giữa:
normal, ordinary và usual. Xin giải thích giúp tôi. Xin cảm ơn.
Có khá nhiều từ trong tiếng Anh có nghĩa gần giống nhau, và chúng thường gây lúng túng cho người học. Trong đó, normal và ordinary có nghĩa rất giống nhau, còn usual có nghĩa hơi khác một chút. Tôi nghĩ là sẽ rất hữu ích nếu chúng ta nói về cách kết hợp từ, cách các từ thường được dùng với nhau.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Existence and Uniqueness of Periodic Solution for Nonlinear Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations
My name is Thomas Leuthard and I’m a Street Photographer from Switzerland. I travel around the World to document the ordinary life on the street. For me Street Photography is a passion, a way of life and not a job or something I do for a living. That’s why I enjoy doing it in my spare time without any pressure. I will do it for as long as I enjoy it and maybe one day I will do something else. I started writing down my knowledge in May 2011 as a blog and then as an eBook. Why another book?...
Problems involving ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can always be reduced to the study of sets of ﬁrst-order differential equations. For example the second-order equation dy d2 y = r(x) + q(x) 2 dx dx can be rewritten as two ﬁrst-order equations dy = z(x) dx dz = r(x) − q(x)z(x) dx
MULTIPLICITY RESULTS FOR A CLASS OF ASYMMETRIC WEAKLY COUPLED SYSTEMS OF SECOND-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
FRANCESCA DALBONO AND P. J. MCKENNA Received 1 November 2004
We prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions to a two-point boundary value problem associated to a weakly coupled system of asymmetric second-order equations. Applying a classical change of variables, we transform the initial problem into an equivalent problem whose solutions can be characterized by their nodal properties.
The three texts in this one cover, entitled ‘The series solution of second order, ordinary differential equations and special
functions’ (Part I), ‘An introduction to Sturm-Liouville theory’ (Part II) and ‘Integral transforms’ (Part III), are three of
the ‘Notebook’ series available as additional and background reading to students at Newcastle University (UK).
The present volume, compiled in honor of an outstanding historian of science,
physicist and exceptional human being, Sam Schweber, is unique in assembling
a broad spectrum of positions on the history of science by some of its leading
representatives. Readers will find it illuminating to learn how prominent authors
judge the current status and the future perspectives of their field. Students will find
this volume helpful as a guide in a fragmented field that continues to be dominated
by idiosyncratic expertise and still lacks a methodical canon.