Organic bromine

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  • Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environmental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment.

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  • Brominated compounds have received much attention recently because their toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neutrotoxicity, have been observed, in particular the brominated diphenyl ethers (Darnerud et al., 2001; Linda S. et al. 2003; Peter Alexander et al. 2003, Juliette Legler et al. 2003). The environmental behavior and fate of many brominated compounds are thought to be similar to those of chlorinated pollutants in the environment

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  • At the open burning sites, some metals were present at concentrations over one hundred times typical background levels for soils, including lead, a highly toxic metal. High levels of other toxic metals, including cadmium and antimony, were also present. Numerous classes of organic chemicals were also present in one or more of the samples, including many halogenated (chlorinated or brominated) chemicals. Many of the compounds identified are intentionally used in electronic devices.

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  • Organic carbon concentrations can be reduced by enhanced coagulation, granular activated carbon or membrane filtration, but this fact can also lead to increased in brominated THMs (Black et al, 1996.). A combination of coagulation, ozonation, and biofiltration can effectively reduce trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (Chaiket et al, 2002.). Natural organic matter (NOM), the main precursor of DBPs, can also be removed by media filters coated with iron oxide

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  • Hexabromobenzene (HBB) has been used as a flame retardant in polymers, plastics, textiles, wood and paper. Its primary uses have been reported in the plastics, paper and electrical industries (Bruchajzer et al., 2004). U.S. production/import volume was listed as 10,000- 500,000 pounds for 1998, but no information is available beyond that time (U.S. EPA, 2002). In addition to its use as a flame retardant, HBB is a thermal decomposition product of octa- and decaBDEs and hexabromobiphenyl (as cited in Bruchajzer et al., 2004).

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  • In arid and semi-arid regions, evapotranspiration rates are much higher, recharge is less, flow paths longer and residence times much greater and hence much higher levels of natural mineralisation, often dominated by sodium and chloride, can be encountered. Thus the major ion contents and TDS are often high. In some desert regions, even if groundwater can be found it may be so salty (extremely high TDS) as to be undrinkable, and the difficulty of meeting even the most basic domestic requirements can have serious impacts on health and livelihood. ...

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  • The physiological role of a bifunctional enzyme, 3,4-dihydrocoumarin hydrolase (DCH), which is capable of both hydrolysis of ester bonds and organic acid-assisted bromination of organic compounds, was investigated. Purified DCH fromAcinetobacter calcoaceticusF46 cata-lysed dose- and time-dependent degradation of peracetic acid. The gene (dch) was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of the bacterium.

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