Organic compounds

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  • The effect of some organic compounds on the activity of chitinase from Serratia marcescens has been investigated. Among these compounds, 1,10-phenanthroline was found to be an inhibitor and ethanol - an activator of the chitinase activity; -’ dipyridyl and Zn2+ do not take any effect on the chitinase activity. In this investigation, the dissociation constant of an chitinase-metalic ion complex (K1) and the inhibition constant (K2) have been estimated with K1 = 0.1 mcM and K2 = 2.667 mM.

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  • Brominated compounds have received much attention recently because their toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neutrotoxicity, have been observed, in particular the brominated diphenyl ethers (Darnerud et al., 2001; Linda S. et al. 2003; Peter Alexander et al. 2003, Juliette Legler et al. 2003). The environmental behavior and fate of many brominated compounds are thought to be similar to those of chlorinated pollutants in the environment

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  • Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. Organic compounds are structurally diverse. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many products including plastics, drugs, petrochemicals, food, explosives, and paints....

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  • In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O. It is common to several classes of organic compounds, as part of many larger functional groups. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex. Other organic carbonyls are urea and the carbamates, the derivatives of acyl chlorides chloroformates and phosgene, carbonate esters, thioesters, lactones, lactams, hydroxamates, and isocyanates.

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  • Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted enormous attention in the recent years because of their potential for flat panel displays and solid state lighting. This potential lies in the amazing flexibility offered by the synthesis of new organic compounds and by low-cost fabrication techniques, making these devices very promising for the market.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidant that can be injected into a contaminated zone to destroy petroleum contaminants. When injected to groundwater, hydrogen peroxide is unstable, and reacts with organic contaminants and subsurface materials. It decomposes to oxygen and water within hours of its introduction into groundwater generating heat in the process. Peroxide is typically shipped to a remediation site in liquid form at dose concentrations ranging from five percent to 50 percent by weight.

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  • Food purchasing is an important expression of food habits. This paper therefore examines the factors associated with a household’s decision to purchase organic food products because such information is not yet available for the study area despite anecdotal evidence of the growing importance of organic products in the country. A randomly chosen sample of 200 consumers in rural and urban areas of the province’s two major regions, the former Ciskei and Transkei homeland areas, were enumerated.

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  • The European Union has developed the draft of a “Working document on sludge” (EU 2000), to promote the use of sewage sludge in agriculture while improving the safety and harmonize quality standards. It proposes limit values for concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds that should restrict the use of sewage sludge in agriculture if the limits are exceeded and provides suggestions for good practice in treatment and agricultural use.

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  • The systematic review search process identified 162 relevant articles published, with an English abstract, in peer-reviewed journals since 1st January 1958 until 29th February 2008. A total of 3558 comparisons of content of nutrients and other substances in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs were extracted for analysis.

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  • In this chapter, we study the three-dimensional structures of molecules to understand their stereochemical relationships. We compare the various types of stereoisomers and study ways to differentiate among stereoisomers. In future chapters, we will see how stereochemistry plays a major role in the properties and reactions of organic compounds.

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  • The standard is intended for the development of organic production and trade in the East African region. The standards can be a platform for a common label for organic products in East Africa and for developing consumer trust. The standard also formulates standpoints which can be used in international negotiations on standards. Further, it can be a basis for equivalence agreements with other countries and regions. The East African organic products standard has been written in a way to make it easy for the reader and user to access and understand.

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  • The complexity of the volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture in the Houston area makes studies of the air quality in that area very challenging. In this paper, a novel factor analysis model, where the normal chemical mass balance model was augmented by a parallel equation that accounted for wind speed and direction, temperature, and weekend/weekday effects, was fitted with a multilinear engine (ME) to provide identification and apportionment of the VOC sources at the La Porte Municipal Airport site in Houston during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) 2000.

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  • Chapter 11 - Reactions of Alcohols. Alcohols are important organic compounds because the hydroxyl group is easily converted to almost any other functional group. In Chapter 10, we studied reactions that form alcohols. In this chapter, we seek to understand how alcohols react and which reagents are best for converting them to other kinds of compounds.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:" Exhaled volatile organic compounds in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: cross sectional and nested short-term follow-up study...

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  • Alcohols are versatile organic compounds since they undergo a wide variety of transformations – the majority of which are either oxidation or reduction type reactions. In this chapter provides knowledge of reactions of alcohols. This chapter presents the following content: Deprotonation, SN1/SN2 via protonation, carbocation rearrangements,...and other contents.

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  • Dissociation Constants Of Organic Acids And Bases: This table lists the acid-base dissociation constants of over 600 organic compounds, including many amino acids. All data apply to dilute aqueous solutions and are presented in the form of pKa, which is the negative of the logarithm of the acid dissociation constant Ka.

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  • This book stems from the author’s experience with a variety of problems on the fate, distribution, and toxicity of organic compounds in the aquatic environment. It became increasingly clear that the procedures for investigating these problems crossed the traditional boundaries of organic and analytical chemistry, microbiology, and biology, and after many years this resulted in the idea of selecting the relevant aspects of these and writing the present book

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  • A compound consisting of an alkyl group and the functional group -OH is an alcohol. The identity of an individual alcohol depends on the identity of R, the alkyl group. For example, when R is the methyl group, we have CH30H. This is methyl alcohol or methanol, also known as wood alcohol. It is highly toxic and can cause blindness or even death in relatively small doses. When R is the ethyl group, we have CH3CH20H. This is ethyl alcohol or ethanol. Ethanol is the alcohol in alcoholic beverages. When R is the isopropyl group, we have (CH3)2CHOH. This is isopropyl alcohol.

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  • A study to measure indoor concentrations and emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, was conducted in a new, unoccupied manufactured house installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) campus. The house was instrumented to continuously monitor indoor temperature and relative humidity, heating and air conditioning system operation, and outdoor weather. It also was equipped with an automated tracer gas injection and detection system to estimate air change rates every 2 h.

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  • The international significance of research into the sources, behaviour, fate, and effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is exemplified by the Stockholm Convention for which the host organisation is the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Following extensive negotiation, it was adopted on 22 May 2001, entered into force 90 days after the 50th party had ratified it on 17 May 2004, and by late 2008 there were over 180 participants (http://chm.pops.int/).

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