Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidant that can be injected into a contaminated
zone to destroy petroleum contaminants. When injected to groundwater,
hydrogen peroxide is unstable, and reacts with organic contaminants and
subsurface materials. It decomposes to oxygen and water within hours of its
introduction into groundwater generating heat in the process. Peroxide is typically
shipped to a remediation site in liquid form at dose concentrations ranging from
five percent to 50 percent by weight.
Surface water treatment is a controversial issue. A healthy balance between possible risks, such as
immediate microbiological contamination and long-term carcinogenic effects due to dsinfection byproducts,
and the treatment costs is required. Another issue of concern relates to drinking water
standards, whch seem unreasonably strict in some countries and practically absent in others. The price
people are required to pap for their water varies with the standards.
Significant advances in subsurface containment technology occurred in the 1990s,
both with the improvement of the technology and the broader acceptance and
applications as a measure for environmental remediation. Since 1995, the U.S.
Department of Energy (USDOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA),
and DuPont have collaborated on a series of organized efforts to advance this
technology. In that year, these collaborators sponsored an international expert
workshop that led to the publication of the first major book on containment
Controlled oxidation is increasingly being practiced using solid peroxides, pH
modifiers, and catalysts that promote the generation of free radicals. This new
approach moderates the rate of dissolution and peroxide generation, which in turn
controls that rate of reaction between peroxide and the petroleum contaminants.
The use of slurried peroxides creates the opportunity to release oxidants and
oxygen over a longer period, which can promote subsequent aerobic remediation.
There is currently no independent authoritative statement on the nature and importance of
differences in content of nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances (nutrients and
other substances) in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs. This systematic
review of the available published literature was designed to seek to determine the size and
relevance to health of any differences in content of nutrients and other substances in
organically and conventionally produced crops and livestock products.
Estuaries are areas of high productivity, crucial in the life histories of many fish,
invertebrates, and birds, for example, and the sustainability of estuarine biodiversity
is vital to the ecological and economic health of coastal regions. On the other
hand, estuarine ecosystems are exposed to toxic anthropogenic effluents transported
by rivers from remote and nearby conurbations and industrial and agricultural concerns.
There are, actually, no formal Swedish regulations for organic contaminants in sludge.
There is an informal agreement between the Swedish EPA, the Farmers Union and the
Water and Wastewater Association which includes the recommendations in table 3.1-1.
These agreements are based more on practical experience than on scientific data. Sweden
also used to have a recommended limit value for toluene, but this has been omitted
Petroleum contaminant decomposition and in-situ destruction may be
accomplished using chemical oxidation technologies. In contrast to other remedial
technologies, contaminant reduction can be seen in short time frames (e.g., weeks
or months). As discussed in this chapter, a variety of chemical oxidants and
application techniques can be used to bring oxidizing materials into contact with
subsurface contaminants to remediate the contamination.
Land contamination has been recognised as a challenge to present and
future generations resulting from previous industrial and waste disposal
practices. This book is a result of the authors’ desire to make sure that the
risks from land contamination are effectively understood and adequately
managed in a context of wise stewardship of resources. It is written for
those embarking on their journey in contaminated land management –
those final year undergraduate and postgraduate students pursuing an
option in contaminated land.
Difficulty in accessing ground water without disturbing ground-water flow patterns,
chemistry, microbiology, and the physical and chemical makeup of formation materials
has made accurate characterization of in situ ground-water conditions a very challenging
The primary purpose of preparing this edition is to provide an update. In the 14 years since
the first edition was published, ecological risk assessment has gone from being a marginal
activity to being a relatively mature practice. There are now standard frameworks and
guidance documents in the United States and several other countries. Ecological risk assessment
is applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the
importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental
Difficulty in addressing contamination in low permeability soils may be
alleviated to some degree by controlled pneumatic or hydraulic fracturing of the
soil. However, engineered hydraulic fractures generally cannot be spaced more
closely than about 5 feet, which means that chemical oxidants must still penetrate a
substantial thickness of low permeability soil to come into contact with the
contamination. Deep soil mixing with large diameter drill augers is the most
effective method currently available to increase contact between adsorbed
contaminants and the oxidants.
Chemical oxidation technologies are predominantly used to address
contaminants in the source area saturated zone and capillary fringe. Cost concerns
can preclude the use of chemical oxidation technologies to address large and dilute
petroleum contaminant plumes. More frequently, chemical oxidation technologies
are employed to treat smaller source areas where the petroleum mass is more
Due to their low aqueous solubilities, the PCBs and PAHs lay on the surface of soils and
waters. PCBs and PAHs adsorb strongly to the organic fraction of soils (Girvin & Scott, 1997;
Hiller et al., 2011). Soils contaminated with PCBs and PAHs are transported directly or
indirectly by rivers to the water reservoir and are subsequently converted into the bed
sediments. Therefore, soils could be considered as the primary sinks for these organic
contaminants. PCBs and PAHs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation
process, and accumulate in food chain.
This book proposes a framework for a national-scale program to monitor changes
in mercury concentrations in the environment following the reduction of atmospheric
mercury emissions. The book is the product of efforts initiated at a workshop held
in Pensacola, Florida, in September 2003, involving more than 30 experts in the
fields of atmospheric mercury transport and deposition, mercury cycling in terrestrial
and aquatic ecosystems, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs and
Biotransformation, and Fate of Organic Contaminants in Estuarine Animals - Một thành phần quan trọng của nghiên cứu đánh giá rủi ro sinh thái trong các đại dương và cửa sông bao gồm các đặc tính của sự tiếp xúc của động vật cửa sông để chất gây ô nhiễm. Dữ liệu về sinh khả dụng, sự thu hút, tích tụ, và loại bỏ
Established in 1995, the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) is a state-led, national
coalition of personnel from the environmental regulatory agencies of some 40 states and the District
of Columbia; three federal agencies; tribes; and public and industry stakeholders. The organization is
devoted to reducing barriers to, and speeding interstate deployment of, better, more cost-effective,
innovative environmental techniques.
Experts working in diverse areas of coastal and estuarine risk assessment contributed
to this first volume of the CRC Press Environmental Risk Series. Contributors were
asked to address a comprehensive series of important topics including the regulatory
context for coastal and estuarine risk assessment, emerging contaminants of concern,
effects to marine mammals, bioavailability and exposure of marine organisms to
inorganic and organic contaminants, and effects of contaminants on ecological
entities ranging from biomolecules to landscapes....
Soil reactivity with chemical oxidants is also important when considering the
costs of the use of chemical oxidation. Excessive loss of a chemical oxidant that is
reacting with organics in soil, instead of reacting with the contaminants, may
preclude the use of the technology as an economically viable approach to site
remediation. Different chemical oxidation technologies are most appropriate for
particular hydrogeologic conditions. For example, Fenton’s Reagant may not be
ideal for groundwater with high concentrations of carbonate.
Automatic sampler (optional)—The sampler must incorporate glass sample
containers for the collection of a minimum of 250 mL of sample. Sample
containers must be kept refrigerated at 4°C and protected from light during
compositing. If the sampler uses a peristaltic pump, a minimum length of
compressible silicone rubber tubing may be used. Before use, however, the
compressible tubing should be thoroughly rinsed with methanol, followed by
repeated rinsings with distilled water to minimize the potential for contamination
of the sample.