Organic liquids

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  • Since the First International Congress on Liquid Crystals (Lcs), held at Kent State University, OH, USA, in 1965, the implications of these systems associated with various aspects of telecommunications, laser, display, automobile, aerospace technologies, thermo-optics, medicine and biology have been the subject of considerable debate among researchers, scientists and engineers. Indeed, LCs, being a unique mesomorphic phase of matter, combine properties of both solids (long-range orientation order, manifestations of Bragg diffraction, etc.) and liquids (fluidity, viscosity, etc.).

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  • This volume, of a two volume set on ionic liquids, focuses on the applications of ionic liquids in a growing range of areas. Throughout the 1990s, it seemed that most of the attention in the area of ionic liquids applications was directed toward their use as solvents for organic and transition-metal-catalyzed reactions. Certainly, this interest continues on to the present date, but the most innovative uses of ionic liquids span a much more diverse field than just synthesis.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidant that can be injected into a contaminated zone to destroy petroleum contaminants. When injected to groundwater, hydrogen peroxide is unstable, and reacts with organic contaminants and subsurface materials. It decomposes to oxygen and water within hours of its introduction into groundwater generating heat in the process. Peroxide is typically shipped to a remediation site in liquid form at dose concentrations ranging from five percent to 50 percent by weight.

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  • This paper describes the work performed on two programs supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy. These programs are aimed at evaluating the potential of using slurries of chemical hydrides and organic liquids to store hydrogen. The projects have been very successful in meeting all project objectives. After a detailed analysis of chemical hydrides, lithium hydride was selected for use in these programs.

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  • Such central queues are called ‘liquidity-saving mechanisms’ (LSMs). There are a number of studies on plain RTGS systems, but only a few on RTGS systems augmented with LSMs. Our work contributes to this line of research. We first model a benchmark system, ie a plain RTGS system where each bank decides: (i) the amount of liquidity to use; (ii) which payments to delay in an internal queue (payments are made as banks randomly receive payment orders, which need be executed with different ‘urgency’).

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  • The ‘electronic book’ is a feature of this early 21st Century. I have been in academic life for several decades, and have I hope responded with flexibility to changes over that time. I have been using a word processor on a daily basis for twenty years and am deeply conscious of the advantages over even the most advanced typewriters. The first time I gave a presentation using Microsoft PowerPoint was in India about six years ago. I have with enthusiasm used PowerPoint for every invited talk or conference contribution I have given since....

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  • This is a book for businesspeople. All decisions in a business organization are made in accordance with how they will affect the organization’s financial performance and future financial health. Whether your background is in marketing, manufacturing, distribution, research and development, or the current technologies, you need financial knowledge and skills if you are to really understand your company’s decision-making, financial, and overall management processes.

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  • The purpose of the CRC Handbook of Engineering Tables is to provide in a single volume a ready reference for the practicing engineer in industry, government, and academia. The tables and figures provided in this book include data and information from all fields of engineering in a comprehensive format. This information is organized into five sections: Electrical and Computer Engineering; Civil and Environmental Engineering; Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Material Science; Mechanical Engineering; and General Engineering and Mathematics.

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  • Chemical oxidation technologies are predominantly used to address contaminants in the source area saturated zone and capillary fringe. Cost concerns can preclude the use of chemical oxidation technologies to address large and dilute petroleum contaminant plumes. More frequently, chemical oxidation technologies are employed to treat smaller source areas where the petroleum mass is more concentrated.

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  • Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are playing a major role in information technology (IT) by providing the promise of further expanding the use of digital displays through making display fabrication technology lower in cost and higher in performance to replace liquid crystal displays (LCD). Due to various attractive features such as high contrast, high brightness, large color gamut and thin structure, various sized OLED displays from small-sized mobile phone display to large-sized TV display have already begun to be mass-produced....

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  • While the structure of the dairy processing industry has improved dramatically, milk collection and distribution is fragmented compared to systems found in other countries. There is a need to improve the supply chain from farmer to consumer in Pakistan. There is very limited data available on the routes to market or the distribution channels employed in Pakistan. Most of the milk produced in the farms is consumed at the household level.

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  • Air samples for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were collected on treated silica-gel cartridges (P/N WAT047205, Waters Corp.) using separate pumps. Sampling flow rates were 2.0 L min-1 collected over 15 min to 30 min yielding sample volumes of about 30 L to 60 L. Each cartridge was extracted with 2 mL of acetonitrile. Extracts were analyzed by high- performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector at a wavelength of 365 nm following ASTM D 5197 (ASTM, 1997a). Extract concentrations were determined from multi- point calibrations of external standard mixtures. ...

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  • Baking Soda: Sodium bicarbonate is a product that can be used as a natural fungicide for black spot, powdery mildew and brown patch by mixing 4 teaspoons (approximately 1 rounded tablespoon) per gallon of water along with one teaspoon of mild liquid soap or horticultural oil and spraying foliage. Be careful to keep the spray on the foliage and not on the soil as much as possible. Baking soda is composed of sodium and bicarbonate ñ both are necessary in the soil but only in very small amounts. Potassium bicarbonate is a good alternative for those concerned about sodium....

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  • The book "Developments in Electrochemistry" contains five feature articles in recent advanced electrochemistry. These selected feature articles emphasize physical phenomena rather than mathematical formalisms of electrochemistry.

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  • In its 2008 World development report on agriculture and development, the World Bank noted that three out of four people in developing countries are living in rural areas, accounting for nearly half of the world’s population. An estimated 86 percent of people living in rural areas consider agriculture their main source of livelihood since they depend on it to provide for their daily needs. The agricultural sector is therefore a driving force for income generation and job creation, and continues to play a vital role for economic growth and sustainable development. ...

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  • This text is the published version of many of the talks presented at two symposiums held as part of the Southeast Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society (SERMACS) in Knoxville, TN in October, 1999. The Symposiums, entitled Solution Thermodynamics of Polymers and Computational Polymer Science and Nanotechnology, provided outlets to present and discuss problems of current interest to polymer scientists. It was, thus, decided to publish both proceedings in a single volume.

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  • The only impact evaluations the IDB has are beneficiary evaluations; that is, the IDB asks the beneficiaries in the communities how they evalu- ate what they received: Was it working correctly? Did they like it? Was the choice an adequate one? Was the project sustainable? The IDB study summarized about 800 project visits in various countries in which this sort of beneficiary evaluation was done, and in general, the beneficiary evaluations are quite positive. School projects have the highest evalua- tions even if a few schools that were built are not operating.

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  • The analysis in this paper suggests that hedge funds play a very positive role in financial markets by providing liquidity to thin markets where mis-priced financial instruments are to be found. This type of activity reduces volatility rather than increasing it. Indeed with the rapid growth of structured products in recent years, particularly in Europe and Asia, hedge funds have been quite critical in containing the volatility that might otherwise have arisen.

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  • Rigorously speaking the functional group is not the whole molecule but only that collection of atoms that provides a specific chemical function. For example, the chemical family of alcohols is characterized by the function of the hydroxyl (OH) group, and aldehydes, ketones are characterized by carbonyl groups (C=O). There are various combinations of hydroxyl groups in molecules along with carbonyl groups and these combinations can lead to hydroxyketones and aldehydes (the basis for sugars) as well as to carboxylic acids.

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  • The RRL also conducts analysis of r-value or vaccine matching of field isolates in comparison with relevant vaccine strains. In terms of serology, the RRL routinely uses liquid phase blocking (LP) and non structure protein (NSP) ELISA. It has been involved in several validation tests conducted for NSP ELISA under the IAEA Project. In addition, the RRL routinely produces and supplies the FMD diagnostic reagents to laboratories both within Thailand as well as SEAFMD countries.

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