Organic molecules

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  • After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: List the features of carbon that result in the diversity of organic molecules, tell how macromolecules are assembled and disassembled, name the most common 5 and 6-carbon sugars and give a function for each, compare the structures of starch, glycogen, and cellulose and give a function for each,...

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  • Chapter 2 - Structure and properties of organic molecules. To understand these aspects of molecular structure we need to consider how the atomic orbitals on an atom mix to form hybrid atomic orbitals and how orbitals on different atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. In this chapter, we look more closely at how combinations of orbitals account for the shapes and properties we observe in organic molecules.

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  • The first two chapters of the text cover a variety of topics that you need to get started with your study of organic chemistry. Chapter 1 reviews the topics from general chemistry that will be important to your study of organic chemistry. The chapter starts with a description of the structure of atoms and then proceeds to a description of the structure of molecules. Molecular orbital theory is introduced. Acid–base chemistry, which is central to understanding many organic reactions, is reviewed.

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  • Chemical precipitation and complexation are primarily important for the inorganic species. The formation of coordination complexes is typical behaviour of transition metals, which provide the cation or central atom. Ligands include common inorganic anions such as Cl - , F- , Br - , SO4 2- , PO4 3- and CO3 2- as well as organic molecules such as amino acids. Such complexation may facilitate the transport of metals. Biodegradation is a reaction process mediated by microbial activity (a biotic reaction).

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  • In this chapter, we study the three-dimensional structures of molecules to understand their stereochemical relationships. We compare the various types of stereoisomers and study ways to differentiate among stereoisomers. In future chapters, we will see how stereochemistry plays a major role in the properties and reactions of organic compounds.

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  • Chapter 12 - Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This chapter identify the reliable characteristic absorptions in an infrared spectrum, and propose which functional groups are likely to be present in the molecule; explain which functional groups cannot be present in a molecule because their characteristic peaks are absent from the IR spectrum; use a mass spectrum to determine a compound’s molecular weight, and propose which elements are likely to be present;...

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  • Chapter 15 - Conjugated systems, orbital symmetry, and ultraviolet spectroscopy. In this chapter, we consider the unique properties of conjugated systems, the theoretical reasons for this extra stability, and some of the characteristic reactions of molecules containing conjugated double bonds. We also study ultraviolet spectroscopy, a tool for determining the structures of conjugated systems.

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  • Chapter 22 - Condensations and alpha substitutions of carbonyl compounds. In this chapter, we consider two more types of reactions: substitution at the carbon atom next to the carbonyl group (called alpha substitution) and carbonyl condensations. Carbonyl condensations are among the most common biological methods for building up and breaking down large molecules.

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  • The carbon dioxide molecule becomes cluster to minimize the free energy; as a result pore nucleation is created. These pores cause the significant expansion of polymeric volume and decrease in polymeric density. A three- dimensional porous structure (scaffolds) is formed after completion of foaming process. The porosity of the scaffolds is controlled by the use of porogens like sugar, salts and wax (Ikada, 2006).

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  • Design a plan to get the information you need to figure out who took Jerell's iPod by using the tests for different types of organic compounds. Advice: You will need to test the dry and liquid parts of Jerell's evidence separately since the tests for organic compounds will not work if you combine the dry and liquid parts of the evidence. To test the pretzel, crush a little bit into fine crumbs. To test the beans, mash them into a paste. Do not add water when you test the beans, yogurt or liquid part of Jerell's evidence. ...

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  • Chapter 5 - The structure and function of large biological molecules. In this chapter, you should be able to: List and describe the four major classes of organic molecules; Explain: monomers, polymers, dehydration synthesis with the type of covalent bond for each; distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides;...

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  • Chapter 25 - The history of life on earth. This chapter define radiometric dating, serial endosymbiosis, Pangaea, snowball Earth, exaptation, heterochrony, and paedomorphosis; describe the contributions made by Oparin, Haldane, Miller, and Urey toward understanding the origin of organic molecules; explain why RNA, not DNA, was likely the first genetic material;...

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  • Chapter 3 - Macromolecules and the origin of life. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What kinds of molecules characterize living things? What are the chemical structures and functions of proteins? What are the chemical structures and functions of carbohydrates? What are the chemical structures and functions of lipids? What are the chemical structures and functions of nucleic acids? How did life on earth begin?

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  • Lecture Organic chemistry - Chapter 15: Benzene and aromaticity. In this chapter, we will explore the structural implications of the stabilizing effects of aromaticity. The discussion will introduce the key ideas by focussing on the unique properties of benzene, the prototypical aromatic molecule. One new chemical reaction appears, electrophilic aromatic substitution, of benzene (using a variety of reagents, leading to different products). This reaction is elaborated in the next chapter, where the substrate is a substituted benzene.

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  • Chapter 24 - Carbohydrates. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Given a molecule in a fisher projection, be able to convert it to a wedge/dash representation and vice versa; given a hexopyranose, be able to determine the configuration of the anomeric carbon stereocenter as α or β.

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  • Biotechnology is the scientific field of studying and applying the most efficient methods and techniques to get useful end-products for the human society by using viable micro-organisms, cells, and tissues of plants or animals, or even certain functional components of their organisms, that are grown in fully controlled conditions to maximize their specific metabolism inside fully automatic bioreactors.

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  • Medicinal chemistry is a discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents (drugs). Compounds used in medical applications are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules and biologics, the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins. Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as drugs.

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  • To be classified as aromatic, a compound must meet both of the following criteria: It must have an un-interrupted cyclic p cloud above & below the plane of the molecule. The p cloud must contain (4n + 2) p electrons (n = 0, 1, 2…).

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  • Nanocrystals have been attracting much attention for future science and technology. Chapters are sought that address innovative solutions to the design, synthesis, crystallization, morphology control, self-assembly, nano/micro-structure formation, patterning, novel property and device application of Nanocrystals. The book involves Nanocrystals of metal oxides, semiconductors, compounds, noble metals, metals, inorganic materials, carbon materials, organic molecules, polymers, bio materials, hybrid materials, composites, etc....

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