Organic pollutants

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  • Difficult to measure accurately and deal with effectively, organic pollutants continue to be a major hazard in the environment. Significantly expanded, the second edition of Organic Pollutants: An Ecotoxicological Perspective describes the mechanistic basis of ecotoxicology, using major groups of pollutants as illustrative examples, and explores the problem of complex mixtures of chemicals.

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  • Organic pollutants cause several environmental problems if discharged to air or water body. The occurrence of organic pollutants in the ecosystem, their risk and removal methods are very important issues .This book deals with several aspects of organic pollutants, especially in the light of organic pollutants monitoring, risk assessment as well as the practical application of different techniques for removing it from the environment.

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  • The international significance of research into the sources, behaviour, fate, and effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is exemplified by the Stockholm Convention for which the host organisation is the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Following extensive negotiation, it was adopted on 22 May 2001, entered into force 90 days after the 50th party had ratified it on 17 May 2004, and by late 2008 there were over 180 participants (http://chm.pops.int/).

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  • The treaty, called the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, is a major achievement. It starts by immediately targeting 12 particularly toxic POPs for reduc- tion and eventual elimination. More importantly, it sets up a system for tackling additional chemicals identified as unacceptably hazardous. It recognizes that a special effort may sometimes be needed to phase out certain chemicals for certain uses and seeks to ensure that this effort is made. It also channels resources into cleaning up the existing stockpiles and dumps of POPs that litter the world’s landscape.

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  • This book is written with the objective of providing fundamental knowledge concerning the biological and health effects of environmental pollutants on living systems. The book emphasizes the chemical and biological characteristics of major pollutants found in our environment and their impacts on the health of living organisms, including not only humans and animals but also plants.

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  • Because of the potential public health implications, the importance of toxic air pollutants in ambient air has been recognized to some degree for many years. Efforts to “regulate” human activities resulting in the production of ambient air pollutants probably date back many centuries, even as the combustion of fossil fuels and air pollution from other organized human activities began having a noticeable impact on the environment.

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  • This book stems from the author’s experience with a variety of problems on the fate, distribution, and toxicity of organic compounds in the aquatic environment. It became increasingly clear that the procedures for investigating these problems crossed the traditional boundaries of organic and analytical chemistry, microbiology, and biology, and after many years this resulted in the idea of selecting the relevant aspects of these and writing the present book

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  • This book aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with Air Pollution. The book consists of 21 chapters dealing with Air Pollution and its effects in the fields of Health, Environment, Economy and Agricultural Sources. It is divided into four sections. The first one deals with effect of air pollution on health and human body organs. The second section includes the Impact of air pollution on plants and agricultural sources and methods of resistance. The third section includes environmental changes, geographic and climatic conditions due to air pollution....

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  • Despite the tremendous progress that has been achieved in water pollution, almost 40% of the U.S. waters that have been assessed by states do not meet water quality goals. About 20,000 water bodies are impacted by siltation, nutrients, bacteria, oxygen depletion substances, metals, habitat alterations, pesticides, and toxic organic chemicals. With pollution from point sources being dramatically reduced, nonpoint source pollution is the major cause of most water that does not meet water quality goals.

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  • Wastes are very process-specific but the key pollutants can be derived from knowledge of: the process, construction materials, corrosion / erosion mechanisms and maintenance materials. Waste audits are used to gather information on the source, composition, quantity and variability of all wastes. Waste prevention typically involves preventing the arising of waste at source, minimising the arisings and recycling any waste that is generated.

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  • Economists have long advocated pollution taxes as a policy to improve water quality. One of the reasons water effluent taxes are embraced by economists interested in market-based policies is that sources of water pollution are varied and difficult to assess individually in terms of control costs. In principle, taxes overcome this problem. With a price—the tax—applied to pollution emissions, firms compare the price to their costs of emissions control. If the price is higher than control costs, they reduce emissions rather than pay the tax.

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  • PART 3 Further issues and future prospects © 2001 C. H. Walker CHAPTER 13 The ecotoxicological effects of herbicides 13.1 Introduction Chapters 5–12 deal with groups of pollutants that have been studied in some depth and detail, largely because they have appreciable – sometimes very high – mammalian toxicity and are perceived as human health hazards. Some of them are markedly persistent and undergo biomagnification with passage along food chains.

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  • Water pollution is a major global problem that requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (from international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.

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  • This document focuses on the batch manufacture of organic chemicals in multipurpose plants and addresses the manufacture of a wide range of organic chemicals although not all of them are explicitely named in ANNEX 1 of the Directive. The list is not conclusive but includes, e.g. dyes and pigments, plant health products and biocides, pharmaceutical products (chemical and biological processes), organic explosives, organic intermediates, specialised surfactants, flavours, fragrances, pheromones, plasticisers, vitamins, optical brighteners and flame- retardants.

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  • There are, actually, no formal Swedish regulations for organic contaminants in sludge. There is an informal agreement between the Swedish EPA, the Farmers Union and the Water and Wastewater Association which includes the recommendations in table 3.1-1. These agreements are based more on practical experience than on scientific data. Sweden also used to have a recommended limit value for toluene, but this has been omitted (WALLGREN 2001).

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  • Under certain conditions, lichen floristic and community analyses can be used in conjunction with measured levels of ambient or depositional pollutants accumulated by lichens to detect effects of changing air quality on vegetation. This information can demonstrate whether air pollutants cause undesirable changes in species composition or presence/absence of lichen species within terrestrial plant communities. It is important that any alternative hypotheses (e.g.

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  • The aims of organic agriculture are summarised in the four principles of health, ecology, fairness and care which inspire the worldwide organic movement. See Annex A. The East African organic products standard has been written for organic production in East Africa and has been adapted to conditions in East Africa. The purpose is to have a single organic standard for organic agriculture production under East African conditions.

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  • In the majority of cases the most direct risk would currently be considered adverse effects to consumers of crops (humans and animals) by virtue of uptake by crops or contamination of crops. An important risk at heavily amended sites is that of groundwater pollution. Many countries in Europe rely heavily on groundwater for drinking water and irrigation water. Persistent contaminants in groundwater can eventually reach and potentially pollute surface waters.

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  • In a literature review of DRESCHER-KADEN et al. (1992) including 900 papers published since 1977, residue data about the level of organic pollutants in German sewage sludges were collected. 332 organic compounds with known or suspected toxic effects have been detected in sewage sludges, 42 of them regularly, most of them within the range of g/kg to mg/kg dry matter. Except volatile and easily degradable chemicals, the residue level increases from raw to digested sludge.

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  • Given a particular representation of f described in Section 2.1,wemust then choose the amount of smoothness to allow for f . We examine model selection approaches that have already been used extensively by investigators in the area of time series modelling of air pollution and health data. A general strategy is to use a data-driven method and to select the number of degrees of freedom(df) which optimizes a particular criterion. For example, one approach is to choose the df which leads to optimal prediction of the mortality outcome series (e.g.

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