Organic reactions

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  • Named reactions still are an important element of organic chemistry, and a thorough knowledge of such reactions is essential for the chemist. The scientific content behind the name is of great importance, and the names themselves are used as short expressions in order to ease spoken as well as written communication in organic chemistry. Furthermore, named reactions are a perfect aid for learning the principles of organic chemistry. This is not only true for the study of chemistry as a major subject, but also when studying chemistry as a minor subject, e.g.

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  • The first two chapters of the text cover a variety of topics that you need to get started with your study of organic chemistry. Chapter 1 reviews the topics from general chemistry that will be important to your study of organic chemistry. The chapter starts with a description of the structure of atoms and then proceeds to a description of the structure of molecules. Molecular orbital theory is introduced. Acid–base chemistry, which is central to understanding many organic reactions, is reviewed.

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  • Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. Organic compounds are structurally diverse. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many products including plastics, drugs, petrochemicals, food, explosives, and paints....

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  • Reaction mechanism: the description of the step-by-step process by which reactants are changed / converted into products. A nucleophile: an electron-rich species that can form a covalent bond by donating 2 electrons to a positive center.

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  • The fourth edition of Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering is a completely revised version of the worldwide best-selling book. It combines authoritative coverage of the principles of chemical reaction engineering with an unsurpassed focus on critical thinking and creative problem solving, employing open-ended questions and stressing the Socratic method. Clear and superbly organized, it integrates text, visuals, and computer simulations to help readers solve even the most challenging problems through reasoning, rather than by memorizing equations.

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  • One of the main missions of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy, founded in 1964, is to foster the growth of advanced studies and scientific research in developing countries. To this end, the Centre organizes a number of schools and workshops in a variety of physical and mathematical disciplines.

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  • A detailed account of the field history, farm maps, crop rotations, and a comprehensive plan of operation for following organic protocols need to be incorporated into the plan. All fields, greenhouses, storage areas, warehouses, and processing facilities used in organic production must be discussed in the OSP. Growers with split operations (organic and conventional production on the same farm) need to include information on how they plan to prevent commingling of the two systems.

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  • Lecture Reaction essay Presented content: Definition, reaction organization, tips for reaction essays, language focus. Invite you to read the lecture reaction essay.

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  • In this chapter, we study the three-dimensional structures of molecules to understand their stereochemical relationships. We compare the various types of stereoisomers and study ways to differentiate among stereoisomers. In future chapters, we will see how stereochemistry plays a major role in the properties and reactions of organic compounds.

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  • Untoward cutaneous responses to drugs can arise as a result of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms. A variety of adverse reactions result from mechanisms that do not involve an immunologic process. Drug reactions are a public health problem because of their frequent occurrence, occasional severity, and impact on the use of medications. The skin is among the organs most often affected by adverse drug reactions. The list of conditions that can be triggered by medications includes nearly all dermatologic diseases.

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  • Strong increase in the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) observed over the years has led to a consolidation of transgenic seed industries worldwide. The dichotomy between the evaluated risk and the perceived risk of transgenic use has defined their level of acceptability among different global societies. GMOs have been widely applied to agricultural commodities, among them the Roundup Ready™ (RR™) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 has become the most prevalent transgenic crop in the world.

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  • Chapter 4 - The Study of chemical reactions. In this chapter, students will be able to: Propose mechanisms and explain the steps for simple reactions such as free-radical halogenation; draw a reaction-energy diagram, and use it to identify the factors controlling the thermodynamics and kinetics of a reaction; use the mechanism, thermodynamics, and kinetics of a reaction to predict which of several possible products is the major product; identify reactive intermediates and explain their properties.

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  • Chapter 6 - Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination. In this chapter, we consider the properties and reactions of alkyl halides. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Name alkyl halides, explain their physical properties, and describe their common uses; predict the products of substitution and elimination reactions, and explain what factors favor each type of reaction;...

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  • After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Classify simple and complex lipids. Identify waxes, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, prostaglandins, and terpenes; explain how unsaturations affect the properties of fats and oils. Compare the properties of saturated fats with those of polyunsaturated oils and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils; predict the reactions of lipids under basic hydrolysis and with standard organic reagents.

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  • There can be little doubt that organized disaster behaviors are an inherent trait among people throughout the world and throughout history. In the past, organized disaster behaviors were primarily in reaction to life-threatening events arising in the natural environment. These reactions reflected our adaptive ability in an often chaotic natural world to initiate organized social survival skills. They have stood us in good stead for millennia. Today, we face disasters of our own making.

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  • Chapter 8 - Reactions of Alkenes. This chapter include objectives: Explain why electrophilic additions are among the most common reactions of alkenes; Predict the products of the reactions of alkenes, including the orientation of the reaction (regiochemistry) and the stereochemistry; propose mechanisms to explain the observed products of alkene reactions; use retrosynthetic analysis to solve multistep synthesis problems with alkenes as reagents, intermediates, or products.

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  • Chapter 9 introduce to Alkynes. In this chapter, students will be able to: Draw and name alkynes, cycloalkynes, and their derivatives; show how to synthesize alkynes by eliminations from alkyl halides and by the additions and substitutions of acetylide ions; predict the products of the reactions of alkynes, including the orientation of the reaction (regiochemistry) and the stereochemistry;...

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  • Chapter 11 - Reactions of Alcohols. Alcohols are important organic compounds because the hydroxyl group is easily converted to almost any other functional group. In Chapter 10, we studied reactions that form alcohols. In this chapter, we seek to understand how alcohols react and which reagents are best for converting them to other kinds of compounds.

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  • Chapter 15 - Conjugated systems, orbital symmetry, and ultraviolet spectroscopy. In this chapter, we consider the unique properties of conjugated systems, the theoretical reasons for this extra stability, and some of the characteristic reactions of molecules containing conjugated double bonds. We also study ultraviolet spectroscopy, a tool for determining the structures of conjugated systems.

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  • Chapter 17 - Reactions of aromatic compounds. In this chapter, we will study several of these reactions and then consider how substituents on the ring influence its reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic substitution and the regiochemistry seen in the products. We will also study other reactions of aromatic compounds, including nucleophilic aromatic substitution, addition reactions, reactions of side chains, and special reactions of phenols.

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