Organizations are complex social
systems that sometimes perform
remarkably well and sometimes
fail miserably. Organizational psychology
is a subfield within the
larger domain of industrial/organizational psychology
that seeks to facilitate a greater understanding
of social processes in organizations.
Organizational psychologists also seek to use
these insights to enhance the effectiveness of
organizations—a goal that is potentially beneficial
This book is designed to provide students
with a thorough overview of both the science
and the practice of organizational psychology.
Whether the British race is improving or degenerating? What, if it seem probably degenerating, are the causes
of so great an evil? How they can be, if not destroyed, at least arrested?--These are questions worthy the
attention, not of statesmen only and medical men, but of every father and mother in these isles. I shall say
somewhat about them in this Essay; and say it in a form which ought to be intelligible to fathers and mothers
of every class, from the highest to the lowest, in hopes of convincing some of them at least that the science of
health, now so utterly neglected in...
Chapter 8 - Improving performance with feedback, rewards, and positive reinforcement. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Specify the two basic functions of feedback and three sources of feedback; define upward feedback and 360- degree feedback, and summarize the general tips for giving good feedback; distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, and give a job-related example of each;...
W hat makes for a good health system? What makes a health system fair? And
how do we know whether a health system is performing as well as it could?
These questions are the subject of public debate in most countries around the world.
Naturally, answers will depend on the perspective of the respondent.
Similarly, policy documents may set certain limitations on the executive. For example,
the board may have a policy regarding finances that states the executive will not un-
reasonably risk organizational assets, including property, unnecessary liability, insuf-
ficient fund controls, or investing organizational surplus in insecure instruments. Or
the board may have a policy limiting the executive from imprudent business practices,
such as treating employees unfairly or choosing violating ethical standards relative to
the organization’s field of practice.
A key consideration in deciding whether to establish a policy preference for organizing
cross-border banking groups as branches or subsidiaries is the balance between efficiency
and financial stability. From the perspective of policymakers, different organizational
structures have important stability implications, notwithstanding the “efficiency arguments”
that may favor branches.