Examples of such organisational factors include the significant changes to the management of
organ donation services made in recent years, with the aim of ensuring that whenever a person
dies in circumstances where organ donation is a possibility, this possibility may be raised with
Tuberculosis has been a major cause of illness and death in the Philippines yet
TB control efforts have historically, been fragmented and uncoordinated. The
National TB Control Program of the Department of Health has made significant
advances in improving the quality and extent of its control efforts but the private
sector and even other departments of government have not been integrated into the
overall TB control activities.
Despite the prominence of gender issues in the IADGs, effectiveness of development cooperation has not focussed
enough on outcomes of gender equality and women’s rights in terms of either the inclusion of indicators tracking the
focus of development cooperation on gender equality or the participation of women’s organisations in initiatives to hold
actors to account. 2012 analysis conducted for the DCF shows that aid/partnership policies, targets and mutual
accountability processes do not focus adequately on the gender impact of development cooperation.
A distinction is to be made between the terms 'efficacy'
and 'effectiveness'. Efficacy is defined as "the probability
of benefit to individuals in a defined population from a
medical technology applied for a given medical problem
under ideal conditions of use". By contrast, effectiveness is
considered to have all the attributes of efficacy but to
reflect "performance under ordinary conditions by the
average practitioner for the typical patient" .
In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as
a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and
specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as
consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult
consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are
toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior.
Neighborhoods may influence late-life health through a number of pathways (see Figure 1). The IOM
(1991) disablement framework, which distinguishes among disease, functional limitation, and disability, serves
as the starting point for this framework. We extend the IOM framework to include mortality and self-rated
general health status, which are both influenced by disease, functional limitation, and disability, as well as the
variety of individual and neighborhood factors that influence health in general.
The resource-based view of the firm (RBV) is one of the latest strategic management concepts to be enthusiastically em-braced by marketing scholars. This paper argues that the RBV holds much promise as a framework for understanding stra-tegic marketing issues but cautions that, before it is adopted, it needs to be fully understood. Consequently, the paper charts the development of the RBV from its origins in early economic models of imperfect competition, through the work of evolutionary economists to the contributions of strategy and marketing scholars over the past two decades.
As the market leader in digital signage, NEC offers a large selection of
powerful digital signage solutions that can provide reliable outstanding
images over long periods of use.
Digital Signage can serve several purposes such as informing, entertaining
or providing a purchasing incentive. For instance, a public display with
tantalising content placed above a concession stand can boost sales of
popcorn, cola and other items.
Hence, there is an imperative need to re-engineer Pakistan’s dairy industry; both at farm and processor
level. This paper seeks to investigate the tools that could bring about such change. We believe achieving
the strategic change outlined in this paper for the dairy industry may prove challenging for at least some
Women usually produce one mature egg per menstrual cycle. Because IVF is so expensive,
current clinical practice is to give women hormonal drugs to stimulate multiple eggs in one
cycle, to increase their chances of pregnancy. For this process, women inject three different
hormones over the course of four to six weeks to “shut down” their ovaries, “hyperstimulate”
them, and to control the timing that the mature eggs will be released.
The above theoretical discussions have been useful in clarifying that one needs
to use a basic epidemiological approach in thinking about the relationship between
trends in different aspects of health. Mortality is a dynamic process that removes
people from the population at a faster or slower rate over time. The number or proportion
of people who are not healthy in a population is an indicator of population
health—or a stock measure—at a point in time.
Even moderate-sized events take a lot of planning and organising. It’s wise to set up an organising
group right from the start and allocate areas of responsibility. Extra helpers can be brought in for
particular roles, such as stewarding, without having to attend all the planning meetings. This approach
cuts down on stress for particular individuals and ensures a more efficient use of everyone’s time and
For more about communications with your entire team see the section on organising your team.
In a 2007 research paper for the SBA, Erin Kepler and Scott Shane found that 14
percent of the women entrepreneurs in their sample had employer firms, versus nearly
22 percent of the men. The Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS) found higher rates for both
genders, perhaps because it is drawn from the Dun & Bradstreet database, which
includes only young firms that are ―serious‖ enough to merit a credit report. But here
again, a gap was found: Of the firms owned solely or primarily by women, 36 percent
were employer firms, versus 44 percent for those owned solely or primarily...
New structures for water management have been put in place in many countries. Usually these have been influenced
by the need for integrated approaches to water management and consist of national (and state where relevant)
coordinating and regulatory structures, basin management and local water user structures. There are variations
according to local circumstances but usually they have been used to decentralise decision-making and to give more
voice to stakeholders (see Box 3.3).
Eligibility criteria for setting up a branch or liaison office center on the track record and net worth
of the foreign head office. For a branch, the head office must have a profit-making track record in
its home country during the immediately preceding five financial years (three years for a liaison
office). The net worth of the foreign head office cannot be less than USD 100,000 or its
equivalent to establish a branch (USD 50,000 or its equivalent to establish a liaison office).
The firm’s beta ratios, its market value to book value, its current price to earnings ratio and the
historical growth rate in earning per share are identified by Moore & Beltz (2002) as possessing strong
influence on the equity price of the firm. They also argue that the identified factors have varying
effects on the price and the effects vary from time to time, sector to sector and even from firm to firm
within the same industry.
By contrast, other scholars argue that private remedies should be strengthened
to enforce corporate governance standards at banks.
Many propose improving
banks’ accountability and efficiency of operations by increasing the legal duties that
bank directors and senior management owe to depositors and other creditors. This
would involve expanding the scope of fiduciary duties beyond shareholders to include
depositors and creditors.
This problem has been the focus of much of the economic literature on water quality.
Because benefits are so difficult to measure, economists have long argued that the second-best
problem is the most relevant one, at least as far as water quality policy is concerned.
words of Baumol and Oates, “It is hard to be sanguine about the availability in the foreseeable
future of a comprehensive body of statistics reporting the marginal net damage of the various
externality-generating activities in the economy.
Atmospheric pollution and climate change present major threats to biodiversity, both
globally and within the UK. National and regional governments have commitments to
address these issues. Responding to the threats posed by air pollution and climate change
requires an understanding of the nature and extent of their impacts. Monitoring allows
changes in biodiversity to be detected and quantified and therefore provides objective
evidence on which to develop scientific understanding, policy and management
The Government has established NBN Co to design, build and operate a broadband network that
satisfies the four objectives laid out in Sub-Section 1.2.1, Key Objectives.
It is NBN Co’s understanding that once the NBN is available the Government will want to pursue the
achievement of public policy objectives in the areas of healthcare, education, aged care and other
areas, as deemed appropriate by Government. These additional services and policy objectives are
not part of NBN Co’s remit and hence, do not form part of NBN Co’s Corporate Plan.