The main operating cost for Reverse Osmosis plants is the cost for electricity. The energy recovery system supplied with the plant is therefore very important. A separate section below discusses energy recovery. Because we are asked so often, I have also included a section on the Operating Cost, as well as some Frequently Asked Questions.
This book is a companion volume to two published in 2011 by INTECH titled “Desalination,
Trends and Technologies” and “Expanding Issues in Desalination”. The term “desalination”
used in this series is in the broadest sense of the removal of dissolved, suspended, visible
and invisible impurities in seawater, brackish water and wastewater.
For this book, the term desalination is used in the broadest sense of the removal of
dissolved, suspended, visible and invisible impurities in seawater, brackish water and
wastewater, to make them drinkable, or pure enough for industrial applications like in
the processes for the production of steam, power, pharmaceuticals and microelectronics,
or simply for discharge back into the environment.
The production process is based mainly on the use of natural fibers-primarily of wood but with significant reliance on non-
wood fibers in the developing world. Apart from this a large number of other inputs also affect the production of paper & its
products. The predominantly contributing factors are; chemicals, water, fillers and energy which play a significant role in
quality and cost effective production of paper products. This reliance on harvested products makes the sector an...
Electrokinetics is a subject that has been at the core of numerous fundamental advancements
in the field of colloid science for over a century. Electrokinetics is a
self-contained body of science that has led to spectacular applications in separations,
characterization of surface properties, manipulation of colloidal materials, and facilitation
of fluid transport in microchannels. For instance, electrophoresis is one of the
common techniques for separation of biological macromolecules (such as proteins).
Chapter 7 - Membrane structure and function. In this chapter you will learn: Define the following terms: amphipathic molecules, aquaporins, diffusion; explain how membrane fluidity is influenced by temperature and membrane composition; distinguish between the following pairs or sets of terms: peripheral and integral membrane proteins, channel and carrier proteins, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport, hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions.
Chapter 36 - Resource acquisition and transport in vascular plants. This chapter describe how proton pumps function in transport of materials across membranes; define the following terms: osmosis, water potential, flaccid, turgor pressure, turgid; explain how aquaporins affect the rate of water transport across membranes; describe three routes available for short-distance transport in plants;...
Interfacial systems are frequently encountered in a large variety of phenomena in biology and industry. A few examples that come to mind are adsorption, catalysis, corrosion, flotation, osmosis, and colloidal stability. In particular, surface films are very interesting from a cognitive point of view. Surface science has a long history. For many years, natural philosophers were curious about interfacial phenomena because it was quite clear that matter near surface differs in its properties from the same matter in bulk...