Host Factors in Infection
For any infectious process to occur, the pathogen and the host must first encounter each other. Factors such as geography, environment, and behavior thus influence the likelihood of infection. Although the initial encounter between a susceptible host and a virulent organism frequently results in disease, some organisms can be harbored in the host for years before disease becomes clinically evident. For a complete view, individual patients must be considered in the context of the population to which they belong.
The complement system (Chap. 308) consists of a group of serum proteins functioning as a cooperative, self-regulating cascade of enzymes that adhere to— and in some cases disrupt—the surface of invading organisms. Some of these surface-adherent proteins (e.g., C3b) can then act as opsonins for destruction of microbes by phagocytes. The later, "terminal" components (C7, C8, and C9) can directly kill some bacterial invaders (notably, many of the neisseriae) by forming a membrane attack complex and disrupting the integrity of the bacterial membrane, thus causing bacteriolysis.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế đề tài: "Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary observations on their pathogenicity...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: Contribution à l’étude du couple Fomes annosus-épicéa variabilité de l’hôte et de l’agent pathogène ...
As awareness of the urgency to address climate
change continues to grow, governments and other
stakeholders, including the United Nations System,
are mobilizing to support the establishment and
implementation of a new comprehensive post-2012
climate regime under the aegis of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The development and rapid implementation of molecular genotyping methods have revolutionized
the possibility for differentiation and classification of microorganisms at the
subspecies level. Investigation of the species diversity is required to determine molecular
relatedness of isolates for epidemiological studies. Methods for molecular epidemiology
of microorganisms must be highly reproducible and provide effective discrimination of
epidemiologically unrelated strains.
Clinical course of CLL is variable. Recently, progress has been made in the identification of
biological markers that could predict disease progression. Particularly, the expression of
unmutated Ig genes, some cytogenetic abnormalities like 17p and 11q deletions and the
expression of the zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) are associated to a poor prognosis.
How real are the women characters in Hindi films? This is something to debate about because values, ideals,
principles; morals have dominated the frame-work in which these films are placed. Thus, women rather than
being depicted as normal human beings are elevated to a higher position of being ideal who can commit no
wrong. Their grievances, desires, ambitions, feelings, perspectives are completely missing from the scene. They
are really portrayed as the „other‟ because they are shown as not belonging to this real and worldly life.
In routine histopathology, most tissues are fixed in formalin and embedded
in paraffin for long-term preservation. DNA can be extracted from these
tissues for subsequent molecular analysis by amplification methods. We
describe herein a protocol for DNA preparation from paraffin-embedded
tissues based on published procedures (1–3). In brief, tissue sections are placed
into microfuge tubes, then deparaffinized with xylene. The xylene is removed
with ethanol washes, and the tissue is treated with proteinase K to make DNA
available for amplification....
Because enteroviruses, including those causing HFMD, are very common, pregnant
women are frequently exposed to the virus as well. As for any other adults, the risk of
infection is higher for pregnant women who do not have antibodies from earlier
exposures to these viruses, and who are exposed to young children - the primary
spreaders of enteroviruses.
Most enterovirus infections during pregnancy cause mild or no illness in the mother.
The fourth row of Table 3 indicates that for over half of nongovernmental organizations
at least 85 percent of borrowers are female. At least a quarter of nongovernmental organizations
serve women exclusively. Banks serve many women, but in lower numbers; for slightly less
than half of institutions, men make up the majority of borrowers. Column 4 breaks out the
median only for profitable nongovernmental microfinance organizations, and their data on
women as a share of all borrowers are much closer to that of other nongovernmental
organizations than that of banks.
Following a comprehensive understanding of the luxury construct, all relevant current and potential value sources of the
consumers‘ luxury perception should be integrated into one single model. A customer‘s luxury value perception and the
motives for luxury brand consumption are not simply tied to a set of social aspects of displaying status, success,
distinction and the human desire to impress other people, but also depend on the nature of the financial, functional and
individual utilities of the certain luxury brand.
Kidney transplant recipients are also subject to infections with other intracellular organisms. These patients may develop pulmonary infections with Nocardia, Aspergillus, and Mucor as well as infections with other pathogens in which the T cell/macrophage axis plays an important role. In patients without IV catheters, L. monocytogenes is a common cause of bacteremia ≥1 month after renal transplantation and should be seriously considered in renal transplant recipients presenting with fever and headache.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 135. Gas Gangrene and Other Clostridial Infections
Definition Bacteria of the genus Clostridium are gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobes that are ubiquitous in nature. There are 60 recognized species of clostridia, many of which are generally considered saprophytic. Some of these species are pathogenic for humans and animals, particularly under conditions of lowered oxidation-reduction potential. Infections associated with these organisms range from localized wound contamination to overwhelming systemic disease.
Other important elements of good design include independence of the agencies making funding
decisions, use of peer review and competitive procedures with clear criteria for project selection. Support
for commercialisation should also be temporary and accompanied by clear sunset clauses and transparent
As noted before, support policies also require a good understanding of the state of
development of green technologies; support for commercialisation should not be provided before
technologies reach a sufficiently mature state. ...
There are changes in the clinical presentation of the co-infected patient as compared to when each infection is
present individually. There may be different symptoms and atypical signs. There may be decreased reliability of
standard diagnostic tests, and most importantly, there is recognition that chronic, persistent forms of each of
these infections do indeed exist. As time goes by, I am convinced that even more pathogens will be found.
Advocacy efforts recognize that, in order to build support for family planning and other
reproductive health, a variety of different audiences and approaches must be used. To
increase men’s participation in reproductive health, advocacy activities can be used to
address a variety of legislative, institutional, religious, and cultural barriers. At the commu-
nity level, opinion leaders and religious leaders often have negative perceptions of family
After the occurrence of a natural disaster, the reconstruction can be ﬁnanced
with catastrophe bonds (CAT bonds) or reinsurance. For insurers, reinsurers and
other corporations CAT bonds are hedging instruments that oﬀer multi year pro-
tection without the credit risk present in reinsurance by providing full collateral
for the risk limits oﬀered throught the transaction. For investors CAT bonds oﬀer
attractive returns and reduction of portfolio risk, since CAT bonds defaults are
uncorrelated with defaults of other securities.
Baryshnikov et al.