Economics is a social science that studies individu-
als and organizations engaged in the production, dis-
tribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The goal is to predict economic occurrences and to
develop policies that might prevent or correct such
problems as unemployment, inﬂation, or waste in the
In this short book, I try to outline the history of the European economy—which is somewhat different from an economic history of Eu-rope. By “European economy,” I mean a world economy in the sense of Fernand Braudel and Immanuel Wallerstein, one that is of course located in Europe and has some common aspects and some common institutions; one that is somewhat integrated, as its different parts are linked by trade and other relations more intensively than they are linked with other sys-tems; and one that achieves some kind of organic unity (despite diversity, which is typical of Europe)...
Over the past twenty years, I have witnessed thousands of CPA candidates pass the Uniform
Certified Public Accountant’s (CPA) examination. Although there are many manuals
and courses that outline the CPA exam’s technical material, there is not much available to
help CPA candidates manage the entire preparation process. This is especially true now that
the CPA exam is offered in a computerized format.
Chapter 4 discuss the social costs of a monopoly and indicate its relevance for "deregulation", outline the characteristic features of a natural monopoly, discuss the case for and against regulating a natural monopoly, explain the meaning of the "structure-conductperformance" (SCP) hypothesis and discuss its relevance for competition policy in South Africa, explain Demsetz’s "efficiency hypothesis" and discuss its relevance for competition policy generally.
Chapter 28 - The structural stagnation policy dilemma. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Differentiate a structural stagnation from a standard recession, demonstrate in the AS/AD model how globalization can mask inflationary pressures caused by expansionary policies, explain the role of globalization and the financial bubble in creating a structural stagnation problem, outline the policy choices that policy makers have to deal with structural stagnation.
Chapter 11 "Aggregate supply and demand", after reading this chapter, you should be able to: Cite the major macro outcomes and their determinants, explain how classical and Keynesian macro views differ, illustrate the shapes of the aggregate demand and supply curves, tell how macro failure occurs, outline the major policy options for macro government intervention.
Our satisfaction in writing the second English edition of this book is easy to
imagine: not only are we assured of the utility of our work, but also have the
opportunity to enlarge and revise it.We have attempted to do this in various
ways. We have removed oversights and errors; we have made a few additions
and expanded a little on all chapters; we have re-written and simplified
various parts which students had found obscure or difficult to understand;
lastly, we have updated the bibliography, with the aim of offering useful
suggestions for further readi...
In this course on game theory, we will be studying a range of mathematical
models of con°ict and cooperation between two or more agents. The course
will attempt an overview of a broad range of models that are studied in
game theory, and that have found application in, for example, economics
and evolutionary biology. In this Introduction, we outline the content of
this course, often giving examples.
In this chapter, we’ll explain the data structures and algorithms that deal with processes,
threads, and jobs in the Windows operating system. The first section focuses on the internal
structures that make up a process. The second section outlines the steps involved in creating
a process (and its initial thread). The internals of threads and thread scheduling are then
described. The chapter concludes with a description of the job object.
Where relevant performance counters or kernel variables exist, they are mentioned.
The proposed activity is the most appropriate approach to the problems outlined under Section 1.5. Vietnamese and Australian scientists and industry stakeholders will work jointly, intensively and sequentially to: (i) describe the existing situations; (ii) identify and describe problems and constraints; (iii) develop recommendations and plans for mitigating the constraints and encouraging future research and development in the industry; and (iv) seek industry feedback by wide dissemination and discussion of the plans, proposals, and findings and recommendations....
Documents listed in section 330-15 must be retained for review by internal, external,
and governmental auditors for the periods specified in the records disposition
schedules (see Section 320-15). Other documentation developed during the course of
financial transactions is considered informational material leading to required
certification or documentation otherwise required and need not be retained. The
Accounting Office, heads of departments, and Senior Vice President--Administration
are responsible for retaining the documents cited in this section.
China's Guangzhou Development District (GDD) will be the site of the new innovation cluster known as Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City. Jointly developed by GDD and Singbridge of Singapore, Knowledge City will be an environmentally and technologically advanced city that hosts innovative
The 72 ranked problem, “Employee Turnover,” is a new entrant to the bottom 10 as
it ranked 51st
in 2008. The economic downturn ignited extensive layoffs by both large and
small businesses. The number of businesses decreasing their labor force far outweighed those
increasing it, leaving few alternative job opportunities for those who remained employed.
This continues as the economic recovery remains anemic and business owners are hesitant
The Government of Vietnam’s (GoV) Socio-Economic Plan outlines the government’s
expectations for agriculture and rural development. The Agriculture Sector GDP in 2009
was 220 trillion VND, approximately 18% of total GDP. Agriculture's share of GDP has
steadily declined GoV and while the GDP increased by 5.3% during 2009, the agriculture
GDP increased by only 1.8%. Never-the-less government expects GDP growth in the
agriculture sector to increase annually by 3 – 5 %.
Locating the South African challenges within a broader international perspective, this study covers all the major economic growth challanges from employment, industrial policy, urban governance, and the informal economy to the social challenges of poverty, inequality, HIV/AIDS, and health policy.
Unit 17: Post – Harvest system outlines the steps involved in traditional processing of cereals. It is vital that project planners and managers consider the traditional technologies in their particular socio – economic context when introducing any technical improvements or adaptations.
Chapter 7 - Pure competition. Explanations and characteristics of the four models are outlined at the beginning of this chapter, then the characteristics of a purely competitive industry are detailed. There is an introduction to the concept of the perfectly elastic demand curve facing an individual firm in a purely competitive industry. Next, the total, average, and marginal revenue schedules are presented in numeric and graphic form.
Chapter 8 - Regional economic integration. The main goals of this chapter are to: Explain the process and the levels of regional economic integration; review the progress towards regional integration in Europe, the Americas, Asia and elsewhere; outline the basic costs and benefits of economic integration (such as trade creation and trade diversion).
This chapter explores the origins of central banking, from the goldsmith bankers in the United Kingdom to the founding of the Bank of England in 1694, this chapter also outlines the evolution of its banking system from the Suffolk System, via the National Banking era; emphasize the federal funds rate, targeted by the Federal Open Market Committee, as well as the recent change to pay interest on reserve balances at the Federal Reserve, enacted by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act from 2008.