In recent years, Internet has known an unprecedented growth, which, in turn, has lead to an
increased demand for real-time and multimedia applications that have high Quality-of-Service
(QoS) demands. This evolution lead to di±cult challenges for the Internet Service Providers
(ISPs) to provide good QoS for their clients as well as for the ability to provide di®erentiated
service subscriptions for those clients who are willing to pay more for value added services.
Unix was developed by AT&T in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and was freely
distributed among a number of major universities during this time. Concurrently,
these universities were developing the network that evolved into the Internet.
As innovative ways are being developed to harvest the
enormous potential of the Internet infrastructure, a new class
of large-scale globally-distributed network services and applications
such as distributed content hosting services, overlay
network multicast , content addressable overlay networks
, and peer-to-peer file sharing such as Napster
and Gnutella have emerged. Because these systems have a
lot of flexibility in choosing their communication paths, they
can greatly benefit from intelligent path selection based on network
In contrast with other VPN technologies, MPLS VPN supports optimum any-toany
connectivity between customer sites (equivalent to the full mesh of overlay
VPN networks) without the end customer having to manually configure anything.
The provider only needs to configure the VPN in the Provider Edge (PE) routers.
The so-called “hub-and-spoke” topology, which was primarily used to reduce the
cost of the network, is no longer needed. The interconnection of CE sites is done
automatically by using BGP and an IGP to find the shortest path....
A network designer that wants to design a scalable MPLS VPN solution is always
faced with a number of scalability issues, several of them being related to the
MPLS VPN architecture:
n MPLS VPN uses internal BGP (IBGP) to propagate VPNv4 routes between
PE routers. Default IBGP implementation requires a full-mesh of BGP
sessions between PE routers—a design that is only appropriate for very small
The Soneplex® management access point (MAP) chassis
dapts and concentrates telemetry byte oriented serial
TBOS) alarm and control signals into simplified network
management protocol (SNMP) messages. Equipment
ormerly monitored by TBOS can now be added to SNMP
management systems used by other data or transmission
products, eliminating the TBOS overlay network. The MAP
nables centralized end-to-end circuit visibility, reduces
overall costs of the management network and provides a
unified SNMP presentation to the operations personnel....
PhotoShop - Tạo tiêu đề cho menu
Trong bài hướng dẫn này, chúng tôi sẽ hướng dẫn bạn cách tạo một tiêu đề menu ấn tượng. Bạn sẽ học cách sử dụng công cụ Rectangle marquee
tool, Drop shadow, Gradient overlay và Outer glow trên menu và rất nhiều thao tác khác.
Hiệu ứng ánh sáng cho ảnh
Mở tấm ảnh cần mần:
Ctrl+j để copy nó ra như hình dưới nè
Vào Filters - Others - Maximum Radius khoảng 3-4 pixels. OK. như hình dưới:
Vào Filters = Blur = Gaussian Blur điều chỉnh Radius khoảng 4-5 pixels. OK.
Review of ONT2
- From Executive Summary – The Vision Layer 1/ Layer 2 networking is going to create entirely new kind of network for real applications. Underlay and overlay taken together can provide new layered services Immediate Need to Buy Dark Fiber Changes Needed at Campus Level GLIF GENI
Generation and Paradigm
Generation ・Fundamental concept and structure of the systems, are maintained, and functions and performances are improved.
Syndication of micronews, frequently-updated content
on the Web, is currently accomplished with RSS feeds
and client applications that poll those feeds. However,
providers of RSS content have recently become concerned
about the escalating bandwidth demand of RSS readers.
Current efforts to address this problem by optimizing the
polling behavior of clients sacriﬁce timeliness without fun-
damentally improving the scalability of the system.
The obvious alternative to polling for data is to dis-
tribute that data, as it becomes available, to lists of
subscribers. This approach may be adequate for small
subscription lists (for example, e-mail lists), but it will
not scale to accommodate the growing subscription de-
mands of Web site syndication. Furthermore, while such
an approach may reduce the overall bandwidth usage of
RSS (by reducing unnecessary fetches), it does nothing
to alleviate the per-update stress on network links close
to the source.
SunCom, an award winning wireless carrier in the Southeast, has added a GSM overlay to its network,
transitioning from pure TDMA service to accommodate customers using both types of services.
As part of this effort, the carrier built a new macro site to deliver both TDMA and GSM service
to The Homestead resort and conference center.
Handoff in mobile and wireless networks
Wireless data services use small-coverage high-bandwidth data networks such as IEEE 802.11 whenever they are available and switch to an overlay service such as the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) network with low bandwidth when the coverage of a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is not available. From the service point of view, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) combines both the data and multimedia information into the wired networks while scaling well from backbones to the customer premises networks....