Oxidant air pollutants

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  • The ACS SYMPOSIUM SERIES was founded in 1974 to provide a medium for publishing symposia quickly in book form. The format of the SERIES parallels that of its predecessor, ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY SERIES, except that in order to save time the papers are not typeset but are reproduced as they are sub- mitted by the authors in camera-ready form. As a further means of saving time, the papers are not edited or reviewed except by the symposium chairman, who becomes editor of the book.

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  • Fossil fuel combustion for transportation contributes to air pollution, and air pollution degrades human health. However, the path from transportation to human health costs is anything but straightforward. Which pollutants are produced in which proportions depend on a number of factors, including the vehicle and fuel used and the driving conditions of a particular trip. These emissions are dispersed into the ambient air according to atmospheric conditions, which also influence the extent to which they react to form secondary pollutants.

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  • These health impacts involve about $10 billion in annual economic damages. Loss of life and pain and suffering account for about $4.1 and $4.8 billion of this total. Annual health care costs of air pollution are in the order of $600 million; lost productivity accounts for an additional $560 million in annual damages. These economic damages are expected to increase substantially over the next 20 years. The ASAP will reduce health and economic damages by about 11% overall, compared to the status quo. The residual damages (i.e.

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  • Rogene Henderson reported having been employed by and having given consul- tation to a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution. She also reported having provided expert opinion or testimony related to the subject of air pollution for a commercial entity or other organization, as well has having held an office or other position, paid or unpaid, where she may have been expected to represent interests or defend a position related to the subject of air pollution.

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  • From a health perspective, reducing exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) is and should be the primary objective of household energy interventions. Measuring IAP levels is particularly important given the difficulty in assessing health outcomes directly. Thus reductions in pollution levels can be assessed as a proxy for likely reductions in health outcomes. The Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring module consists of three presentations as well as extensive hands-on training to launch, place and collect the instruments and to download and process the resulting data.

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  • China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.

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  • Anthropogenic air pollution constitutes of many substances. Greenhouse gases absorb and reflect some of the infrared parts of solar radiation reflected from the earth surface thus causing the troposphere to be warmer. Among others, these substances are carbone-dioxide, water vapour, hydrogen oxides, nitrogen-oxides and methane. Beyond causing warming, most of these gases are poisonous to the Earth’s biosphere. Besides greenhouse gases, there are a few more poisonous substances which have anthropogenic sources.

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  • The atmosphere may be our most precious resource. Accordingly, the balance between its use and protection is a high priority for our civilization. While many of us would consider air pollution to be an issue that the modern world has resolved to a greater extent, it still appears to have considerable influence on the global environment. In many countries with ambitious economic growth targets the acceptable levels of air pollution have been transgressed. Serious respiratory disease related problems have been identified with both indoor and outdoor pollution throughout the world....

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  • The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) provided daily data on air pollution levels collected at the nine monitoring stations located throughout the city. Six of these monitors have been in operation since 1987 and are operated directly by the CPCB. The other three monitors, added to the monitoring network in 1990, are operated on behalf of the CPCB by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI).

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  • Michael Kleinman reported having received remuneration from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to air pollution and having provided an expert opinion or testimony as part of a regulatory, legislative or ju- dicial process related to air pollution. Gunnar Nielsen reported having provided an expert opinion or testimony as part of a regulatory, legislative or judicial process related to the subject of air pollution for a commercial entity or other organization. David G. Penney has given numerous testimonies on safe levels of carbon mon- oxide.

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  • In the last 10-20 years epidemiology has dealt extensively with the effect of outdoor air pollution on human health. A considerable number of case studies in different countries and under different exposure situations have confirmed that air pollution is one of various risk-factors for morbidity and mortality. In general, air pollution is a mixture of many substances (particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides). Knowing that several indicators of exposure (eg. NO2, CO, PM10, TSP etc.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Air-pollutant chemicals and oxidized lipids exhibit genome-wide synergistic effects on endothelial cells...

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  • Secondary aerosol is produced by the oxidation of primary gases (sulphur dioxide, SO2, nitrogen oxides, NOx, and volatile organic compounds, VOCs,) to sulphuric and nitric acid, and organic vapours, followed by their gas-particle conversion [26, 77]. Finally, some of these acidic gases can be neutralised by reaction with ammonia gas or calcium carbonate (calcite) forming secondary aerosol (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, calcium sulphate, calcium nitrate).

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  • Oxidizers nhiệt (TOX) được sử dụng để phá hủy các hydrocarbon phản đối có trong dòng thải từ các nhà máy sản xuất. Các chất thải có thể là chất rắn, chất lỏng, hoặc hơi. Chúng thường được tạo ra liên tục - bãi chôn lấp nếu không kinh tế có thể được ưu tiên cho chất rắn và chất lỏng, trong khi pháo sáng khẩn cấp có thể được ưa thích để tiêu hủy nhiều khí thải.

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  • Airborne suspended particulate matter (PM) can be either primary or secondary in nature. Primary particles are emitted directly into the atmosphere either by natural or anthropogenic processes, whereas secondary particles have a predominantly man made origin and are formed in the atmosphere from the oxidation and subsequent reactions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and VOCs.

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  • The major sources of carbon monoxide pollution are automotive exhaust and emissions from large industrial combustion sources such as electrical power plants. Because these sources produce many contaminants in addition to carbon monoxide -- such as fine particles and nitrogen oxides -- it is often difficult to isolate the health effects of ambient carbon monoxide from those of other pollutants. In addition to carbon monoxide generated outside, there are also important indoor sources of the pollutant.

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  • The results are consistent. All of the pollut- ants common to auto exhaust also appear in the air within automobiles. For all except carbon mon- oxide and the largest particulate matter, concen- trations are typically higher inside cars in heavy traffic than other places—the roadside, nearby fixed measurement sites, and inside transit buses, trains, and subways—where we might also expect the presence of auto pollutants. The purpose of this report is to educate the public and policymakers. There are actions that individuals can ...

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  • While various glomerular disorders account for the most cases of end stage renal failure, the etio-pathogenesis of these conditions intrigued many investigators for decades. A clear knowledge of the etiology and pathogenesis is crucial for developing novel strategies to prevent and to treat these disorders. Notwithstanding the continuous emergence of new discoveries, we still have a long way to get any closer to a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of glomerular injury.

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  • The principal pollutants from the transport sector responsible for adverse health effects include lead, various types of particulate matter, ozone (formed from atmospheric reactions of oxides of nitrogen [Nox] and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]), various toxic VOCs, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia and sulphur dioxide. However, the proportion of these various pollutants attributable to the transport sector varies significantly across different cities, as indicated by the table below.

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  • In Austria, particulate matter is measured in agreement with national legislation as Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) at more than 110 sites, whereas PM10 measurements are not yet available. It was assumed that ambient air TSP levels can be attributed to the contribution of local sources and regional background concentrations. Both of them were modelled separately. The starting point for the modelling of local contributions was the availability of a spatially disaggregated emission inventory for nitrogen oxides (NOx).

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