In modern research and development, materials manufacturing crystal growth is known as a way to solve a wide range of technological tasks in the fabrication of materials with preset properties. This book allows a reader to gain insight into selected aspects of the field, including growth of bulk inorganic crystals, preparation of thin films, low-dimensional structures, crystallization of proteins, and other organic compounds.
The membrane lipid composition of planctomycetes capable of the an-aerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox), i.e. Candidatus‘Brocadia
anammoxidans’ and Candidatus‘Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’, was shown to
be composed mainly of so-called ladderane lipids. These lipids are com-prised of three to five linearly concatenated cyclobutane moieties withcis
ring junctions, which occurred as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkyl glycerol
monoethers, dialkyl glycerol diethers and mixed glycerol ether⁄esters. ...
Methemoglobin (metHb), an oxidized form of hemoglobin, is unable to
bind and carry oxygen. Erythrocytes are continuously subjected to oxida-tive stress and nitrite exposure, which results in the spontaneous formation
of metHb. To avoid the accumulation of metHb, reductive pathways medi-ated by cytochrome b5 or flavin,
A comparative study of the rates of ferrocyanide-catalyzed oxidation of
several oxymyoglobins by molecular oxygen is reported. Oxidation of the
native oxymyoglobins from sperm whale, horse and pig, as well as the
chemically modified (MbO2) sperm whale oxymyoglobin, with all accessible
His residues alkylated by sodium bromoacetate (CM-MbO2), and the
mutant sperm whale oxymyoglobin [MbO2(His119 fiAsp)], was studied.
We recently reported that the transient expression of polyglutamine tracts
of various size in exon 1 of the huntingtin polypeptide (httEx1) generated
abnormally high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species that directly
contributed to cell death. Here, we compared the protection generated by
heat shock proteins to that provided by the antioxidant agentN-acetyl-l-cysteine.
Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with oxidative stress. Low den-sity lipoprotein (LDL) exists in the brain and is especially sensitive to oxi-dative damage. Oxidative modification of LDL has been implicated in
the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, protecting LDL
from oxidation may be essential in the brain.
Calmodulin (CaM) is a cytosolic Ca
signal-transducing protein that
binds and activates many different cellular enzymes with physiological rele-vance, including the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes. CaM consists of
two globular domains joined by a central linker; each domain contains an
EF hand pair.
Analysis of the molecular properties of proteins extracted
from organisms living under extreme conditions often
highlights peculiar features. We investigated by UV-visible
spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography the oxidation pro-cess, promoted by air or ferricyanide, of five hemoglobins
extracted from Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei).
The ÔMediterraneanÕ variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deﬁciency is due to the C563CT point mutation, leading to replacement of Ser with Phe at position 188, resulting in acute haemolysis triggered by oxidants. Previous work has shown increased formation of altered aspartate residues in membrane proteins during cell ageing and in response to oxidative stress in normal erythrocytes. These abnormal residues are speciﬁcally recognized by the repair enzyme L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) protein O-methyltransferase (PCMT; EC 126.96.36.199). ...
Bacterial and archaeal endo-b-1,3-glucanases that belong to glycoside
hydrolase family 16 share a b-jelly-roll fold, but differ significantly in
sequence and in substrate specificity. The crystal structure of the laminarin-ase (EC 188.8.131.52) from the hyperthermophilic archaeonPyrococcus furiosus
(pfLamA) has been determined at 2.1 A˚
resolution by molecular replace-ment. ThepfLamA structure reveals a kink of six residues (72–77) at the
entrance of the catalytic cleft.
Hydrogen sulfide is a potent toxin of aerobic respiration, but also has
physiological functions as a signalling molecule and as a substrate for ATP
production. A mitochondrial pathway catalyzing sulfide oxidation to thio-sulfate in three consecutive reactions has been identified in rat liver as well
as in the body-wall tissue of the lugworm,Arenicola marina.
Human methionine synthase (hMS) is a multidomain cobalamin-dependent
enzyme that catalyses the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by
methyl group transfer. We report here the 1.6 A˚
crystal structure of the
C-terminal activation domain of hMS.
Plasma concentrations of free fatty acids are increased in metabolic syn-drome, and the increased fatty acids may cause cellular damage via the
induction of oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine
whether the increase in fatty acids can modify the free sulfhydryl group in
position 34 of albumin (Cys34) and enhance the redox-cycling activity of
the copper–albumin complex in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
We describe the cloning, overexpression, purification, characterization and
crystal structure of chitinase G, a single-domain family 19 chitinase from
the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolorA3(2). Although chi-tinase G was not capable of releasing 4-methylumbelliferyl from artificial
chitooligosaccharide substrates, it was capable of degrading longer chito-oligosaccharides at rates similar to those observed for other chitinases.
Oxidant-induced cell damage may be initiated by peroxidative injury to
lysosomal membranes, catalyzed by intralysosomal low mass iron that
appears to comprise a major part of cellular redox-active iron. Resulting
relocation of lytic enzymes and low mass iron would result in secondary
harm to various cellular constituents.
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation deficiencies are due to
genetic defects in enzymes of fatty acidb-oxidation and
transport proteins.Genetic defects have been identified in
most of the genes where nearly all types of sequence vari-ations (mutation types) have beenassociatedwithdisease.In
this paper, we will discuss the effects of the various types of
sequence variations encountered and review current know-ledge regarding the genotype–phenotype relationship, espe-cially in patients with acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies
where sufficient material exists for a meaningful discussion....
The SUMO proteins are a class of small ubiquitin-like
modifiers. SUMO is attached to a specific lysine side chain
on the target protein via an isopeptide bond with its
C-terminal glycine.Thereareat least fourSUMOproteins in
humans, which are involved in protein trafficking and tar-
geting. A truncated human SUMO-2 protein that contains
residues 9–93 was expressed inEscherichia coliand crystal-
lized in two different unit cells, with dimensions of a ¼b¼
and a¼b¼74.96 A
both belonging to the rhombohedral space groupR3.
The levels ofa-aminoadipic-d-semialdehyde residue, the
oxidative deamination product of lysine residue, in plasma
protein from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were
evaluated.a-Aminoadipic-d-semialdehyde was converted to
a bisphenol derivative by acid hydrolysis in the presence of
phenol, and determined by high performance liquid chro-matography. Analysis of plasma proteins revealed three
timeshigherlevelsofa-aminoadipic-d-semialdehyde in dia-betic subjects comparedwithnormal controls.
Nitric oxide (NO), the principal endogenous ligand for soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), stimulates that enzyme and accumulation of intracellular cGMP, which mediates many of the (patho) physiological eﬀects of NO. Previous studies demonstrated that 2-substituted adenine nucleotides, including 2-methylthioATP (2MeSATP) and 2-chloroATP (2ClATP), allosterically inhibit guanylate cyclase C, the membrane-bound receptor for the Escherichia coli heatstable enterotoxin in the intestine. The present study examined the eﬀects of 2-substituted adenine nucleotides on crude and puriﬁed sGC. ...