Women’s health is inextricably linked to the context in
which they live their lives. Only within the past few
decades have researchers and clinicians acknowledged
the importance of women’s lived experiences for their
well-being. The feminist movement of the 1960s and
1970s prompted critical analysis of women’s health and
its relationship to society, and of women’s health care
Despite these factors, children’s mental health has so far been paid insufficient attention
in schools. Teachers are uniquely placed to influence the mental health of children and
young people. As well as being in a position to recognise the symptoms of mental health
difficulties at an early stage, they can enhance the social and emotional development of
children and foster their mental well-being through their daily responses to pupils.
During the last few decades inordinate attention has been paid to the
promotion of ‘healthy’ living. This has come from governmental, academic,
commercial and popular sources. Few people today can be unaware of the
espoused merits of such a lifestyle. Anyone who has visited a supermarket
recently, turned on the television, listened to the radio or read a magazine
must have noticed that awareness of health issues is growing. Health is clearly
a topical issue at both political and cultural levels....
In an effort to modernize Medicare insurance, the Federal
government has allowed private insurers who meet strict
requirements to sell private insurance to the elderly, as a
substitute for 'traditional' Medicare insurance. There are
many forms of private insurance now being sold to the
elderly, including some managed care plan types. Managed
care plans restrict the choice of physicians and hospitals
to include a set selected by the insurance plan, over
whom the plan has more control in terms of utilization
Hajo Zeeb reported having received remuneration from employment and con-
sultancy for a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related
to the subject of air pollution. He also reported having received research support
from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the
subject of the meeting. He confirmed having held an office or other position,
paid or unpaid, where he may have been expected to represent interests or de-
fend a position related to the subject air pollution.
Kifmann and Scheuer Health Economics Review 2011, 1:14 http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/14
Balance billing: the patients’ perspective
Mathias Kifmann1* and Florian Scheuer2
Abstract We study the effects of ‘balance billing’, i.e., allowing physicians to charge a fee from patients in addition to the fee paid by Medicare. First, we show that on pure efficiency grounds the optimal Medicare fee under balance billing is zero. An active Medicare policy thus can only be justified when distributional concerns are accounted for.
These types of policies give rise to an annual charge as well as to the other
charges that arise on a gain. In general, a Personal Portfolio Bond (PPB) is a
life insurance policy where the benefits payable are determined by the value
of certain property chosen directly or indirectly by the policyholder ,
rather than investment funds generally available to other policyholders.
The charge will arise if the policy is a PPB at the end of the insurance year .
You are treated as having made a gain of an amount equal to 15 per cent of
premiums paid, with the premiums paid being treated...
The loss of the family wage earner can be devastating,
both emotionally and financially. Social Security helps by
providing income for the families of workers who die. In
fact, 98 of every 100 children could get benefits if a working
parent dies. And Social Security pays more benefits to
children than any other federal program.
This booklet gives you an overview of Social Security
survivors benefits paid to the spouse and children of a
worker who dies. This booklet is not intended to answer all
the questions you may have.
If you have been divorced, your former wife or husband
who is age 60 or older (50-59 if disabled) can get benefits
if your marriage lasted at least 10 years. Your former
spouse, however, does not have to meet the age or length-
of-marriage rule if he or she is caring for his/her child who
is younger than age 16 or who is disabled and also entitled
based on your work. The child must be your former spouse’s
natural or legally adopted child.
Benefits paid to you as a surviving divorced spouse who
meets the age or disability requirement as a widow...
Vincent Cogliano reported holding stocks, bonds, stock options or other securi-
ties in a commercial entity with an interest related to air pollution. He also re-
ported having held office or position, paid or unpaid, where he may have been
expected to represent interests or defend a position related to the subject of air
David Eastmond reported having received research support from a commercial
entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution.
Most markets have preciously few
advertising and promotion dollars and
therefore need to seek the biggest bang
for their bucks. Even if your market is
blessed with a large ad budget, you will
want to spend it effectively. The
following general principles of
marketing can be helpful in guiding
your market in getting the most from
Keep the 80/20 rule in mind: 80%
of your business comes from 20%
of your customers. (Koch, 1998).
A long-term care insurance scheme, similar in nature to other social insurance systems in
Germany (pension, employment and health insurance), was introduced by the German
Parliament in 1994.
All employees earning less than the social security earnings ceiling
(Pflichtversicherungsgrenze) for the German social insurance system (3,937.50 euros per
month in 2006) are members of this system.
Nine out of ten non-elderly Americans with private health
insurance receive it through their employer.
generally understand how job-based coverage works,
because it is the most common form of coverage.
Employer coverage is subsidized, and nearly all
employers pay at least half of the premium. On average,
employers pay 83 percent of the cost of single coverage
and 73 percent of the cost of family coverage.
employees have a strong incentive to sign up for employer
coverage, regardless of their health or financial status.
Rising health premiums are exacerbating income
inequality and making coverage too costly for
many Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation
found that employer-sponsored health
insurance premiums have more than doubled in
the last nine years, a rate four times faster than
wage increases.38 A study by McKinsey Global
Institute of widening income gaps among U.S.
In addition, Kaiser CDSMP participants had 0.2 fewer
visits to the emergency room and 0.97 fewer hospital days
compared to the year prior to completing the CDSMP. As a
result, they reduced their health care costs. For example, if
the average cost per day of hospitalization were $1,000 and
the average cost of an emergency room visit were $100, the
potential savings would be $990 per participant for the first
year following completion of the program (0.97 days of
hospitalization multiplied by $1,000 plus 0.2 emergency
visits multiplied by $100).
The core of this chapter is a discussion of EITC-related behavioral issues
and research. Section 3.3 provides EITC program statistics. As would be
expected with a program that has more than tripled in size (in real dollars)
in the 1990s, a considerable amount of attention has been paid to the EITC
in recent years. In section 3.4, we outline the conceptual underpinnings of
much of this recent work and discuss EITC participation and compliance,
its eﬀects on labor force participation and hours of work, marriage and fer-
tility, skill formation, and consumption.
To receive the earned income credit, taxpayers ﬁle their regular tax re-
turn and ﬁll out the six-line Schedule EIC that gathers information about
qualifying children. The EITC is refundable, meaning that it is paid out by
the Treasury regardless of whether the taxpayer has any federal income tax
liability. There are several basic tests for EITC eligibility. The taxpayer
must have both earned and adjusted gross income below a threshold that
varies by year and by family size. Most EITC payments go to taxpayers
with at least one “qualifying child.
Rogene Henderson reported having been employed by and having given consul-
tation to a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to
the subject of air pollution. She also reported having provided expert opinion or
testimony related to the subject of air pollution for a commercial entity or other
organization, as well has having held an office or other position, paid or unpaid,
where she may have been expected to represent interests or defend a position
related to the subject of air pollution.
We have combined several types of data for this analysis. Our main data contains automobile
transactions from a sample of 15-20% of all dealerships in the U.S. from September 1, 1999 to
June 30, 2008. The data were collected by a major market research rm, and include every
new car and used car transaction within the time period for the dealers in the sample.
Notwithstanding the fact that the policy rate is near its zero lower bound, the
Federal Reserve retains a number of tools and strategies for providing additional
stimulus. I will focus here on three that have been part of recent staff analyses and
discussion at FOMC meetings: (1) conducting additional purchases of longer-term
securities, (2) modifying the Committee’s communication, and (3) reducing the interest
paid on excess reserves. I will also comment on a fourth strategy, proposed by several
economists--namely, that the FOMC increase its inflation goals. ...