The impact of biomarkers in present day health care system, health management and
healthy life is enormous. Clinicians need them for diagnosis, prognosis, effect of
therapeutic intervention, and most importantly, for early detection of a disease.
Pharmaceutical industries need them for new drug discovery and drug efficiency test.
Regulatory authorities need them for testing toxicity and environmental impact.
Epidemiologists need them for population screening and risk factor determination.
The field of general surgery has changed dramatically over the last
ten years with the acceptance of laparoscopy as an extension of the scalpel.
Once ridiculed by most academic centers, laparoscopy has revolutionized
the management of biliary tract disease and has led to a critical
reassessment of how patients with other general surgical problems are
managed. The rapid advancement and acceptance of laparoscopy as a
part of general surgery is apparent today since most academic centers
have laparoscopic sections and many offer laparoscopic fellowships....
To gain better insight into the insulin secretory activity of
fetalbcells in response to glucose, the expression of glucose
transporter 2 (GLUT-2), glucokinase and mitochondrial
glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGDH) were studied.
Expression ofGLUT-2mRNA and protein in pancreatic
islets and liver was signi®cantly lower in fetal and suckling
rats than in adult rats.
Chromosomal rearrangements apparently account for the presence of a pri-mate-specific gene (protease serine 3) in chromosome 9. This gene encodes,
as the result of alternative splicing, both mesotrypsinogen and trypsino-gen 4. Whereas mesotrypsinogen is known to be a pancreatic protease,
neither the chemical nature nor biological function of trypsinogen 4 has
been explored previously.
We purified pancreatic deoxyribonucleases I (DNases I)
from three snakes, Elaphe quadrivirgata, Elaphe climaco-phoraandAgkistrodon blomhoffii, and cloned their cDNAs.
Each mature snake DNase I protein comprised 262 amino
acids. Wild-type snake DNases I with Leu130 were more
thermally unstable than wild-type mammalian and avian
DNases I with Ile130. After substitution of Leu130Ile, the
thermal stabilities of the snake enzymes were higher than
those of their wild-type counterparts and similar to mam-malian wild-type enzyme levels....
Rarely, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is produced by pancreatic islet tumors, SCLC, medullary thyroid cancer, carcinoids, or prostate cancer. When levels are high enough, CRH can cause pituitary corticotrope hyperplasia and Cushing's syndrome. Tumors that produce CRH sometimes also produce ACTH, raising the possibility of a paracrine mechanism for ACTH production.
A distinct mechanism for ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome involves ectopic expression of various G protein–coupled receptors in the adrenal nodules.