This paper investigates a machine learning approach for temporally ordering and anchoring events in natural language texts. To address data sparseness, we used temporal reasoning as an oversampling method to dramatically expand the amount of training data, resulting in predictive accuracy on link labeling as high as 93% using a Maximum Entropy classifier on human annotated data. This method compared favorably against a series of increasingly sophisticated baselines involving expansion of rules derived from human intuitions. ...
Decoding algorithm is a crucial part in statistical machine translation. We describe a stack decoding algorithm in this paper. We present the hypothesis scoring method and the heuristics used in our algorithm. We report several techniques deployed to improve the performance of the decoder. We also introduce a simplified model to moderate the sparse data problem and to speed up the decoding process. We evaluate and compare these techniques/models in our statistical machine translation system.
In this paper, we view coreference resolution as a problem of ranking candidate partitions generated by different coreference systems. We propose a set of partition-based features to learn a ranking model for distinguishing good and bad partitions. Our approach compares favorably to two state-of-the-art coreference systems when evaluated on three standard coreference data sets.
We introduce a novel search algorithm for statistical machine translation based on dynamic programming (DP). During the search process two statistical knowledge sources are combined: a translation model and a bigram language model. This search algorithm expands hypotheses along the positions of the target string while guaranteeing progressive coverage of the words in the source string. We present experimental results on the Verbmobil task.
Most statistical machine translation systems employ a word-based alignment model. In this paper we demonstrate that word-based alignment is a major cause of translation errors. We propose a new alignment model based on shallow phrase structures, and the structures can be automatically acquired from parallel corpus. This new model achieved over 10% error reduction for our spoken language translation task.
A great deal of work has been done demonstrating the ability of machine learning algorithms to automatically extract linguistic knowledge from annotated corpora. Very little work has gone into quantifying the difference in ability at this task between a person and a machine. This paper is a first step in that direction.
In this paper we compare different approaches to extract deﬁnitions of four types using a combination of a rule-based grammar and machine learning. We collected a Dutch text corpus containing 549 deﬁnitions and applied a grammar on it. Machine learning was then applied to improve the results obtained with the grammar. Two machine learning experiments were carried out. In the ﬁrst experiment, a standard classiﬁer and a classiﬁer designed speciﬁcally to deal with imbalanced datasets are compared.
This paper presents an attempt at building a large scale distributed composite language model that simultaneously accounts for local word lexical information, mid-range sentence syntactic structure, and long-span document semantic content under a directed Markov random ﬁeld paradigm.
In this paper, with a belief that a language model that embraces a larger context provides better prediction ability, we present two extensions to standard n-gram language models in statistical machine translation: a backward language model that augments the conventional forward language model, and a mutual information trigger model which captures long-distance dependencies that go beyond the scope of standard n-gram language models.
Machine transliteration is deﬁned as automatic phonetic translation of names across languages. In this paper, we propose synchronous adaptor grammar, a novel nonparametric Bayesian learning approach, for machine transliteration. This model provides a general framework without heuristic or restriction to automatically learn syllable equivalents between languages.
This paper focuses on domain-speciﬁc senses and presents a method for assigning category/domain label to each sense of words in a dictionary. The method ﬁrst identiﬁes each sense of a word in the dictionary to its corresponding category. We used a text classiﬁcation technique to select appropriate senses for each domain. Then, senses were scored by computing the rank scores. We used Markov Random Walk (MRW) model. The method was tested on English and Japanese resources, WordNet 3.0 and EDR Japanese dictionary. ...
This paper revisits the pivot language approach for machine translation. First, we investigate three different methods for pivot translation. Then we employ a hybrid method combining RBMT and SMT systems to ﬁll up the data gap for pivot translation, where the sourcepivot and pivot-target corpora are independent. Experimental results on spoken language translation show that this hybrid method signiﬁcantly improves the translation quality, which outperforms the method using a source-target corpus of the same size. ...
An efﬁcient decoding algorithm is a crucial element of any statistical machine translation system. Some researchers have noted certain similarities between SMT decoding and the famous Traveling Salesman Problem; in particular (Knight, 1999) has shown that any TSP instance can be mapped to a sub-case of a word-based SMT model, demonstrating NP-hardness of the decoding task. In this paper, we focus on the reverse mapping, showing that any phrase-based SMT decoding problem can be directly reformulated as a TSP.
The tree sequence based translation model allows the violation of syntactic boundaries in a rule to capture non-syntactic phrases, where a tree sequence is a contiguous sequence of subtrees. This paper goes further to present a translation model based on non-contiguous tree sequence alignment, where a non-contiguous tree sequence is a sequence of sub-trees and gaps. Compared with the contiguous tree sequencebased model, the proposed model can well handle non-contiguous phrases with any large gaps by means of non-contiguous tree sequence alignment. ...
Recently confusion network decoding shows the best performance in combining outputs from multiple machine translation (MT) systems. However, overcoming different word orders presented in multiple MT systems during hypothesis alignment still remains the biggest challenge to confusion network-based MT system combination. In this paper, we compare four commonly used word alignment methods, namely GIZA++, TER, CLA and IHMM, for hypothesis alignment.
In this paper, we propose a linguistically annotated reordering model for BTG-based statistical machine translation. The model incorporates linguistic knowledge to predict orders for both syntactic and non-syntactic phrases. The linguistic knowledge is automatically learned from source-side parse trees through an annotation algorithm. We empirically demonstrate that the proposed model leads to a signiﬁcant improvement of 1.55% in the BLEU score over the baseline reordering model on the NIST MT-05 Chinese-to-English translation task. ...
This paper presents a partial matching strategy for phrase-based statistical machine translation (PBSMT). Source phrases which do not appear in the training corpus can be translated by word substitution according to partially matched phrases. The advantage of this method is that it can alleviate the data sparseness problem if the amount of bilingual corpus is limited.
We would like to draw attention to Hidden Markov Tree Models (HMTM), which are to our knowledge still unexploited in the ﬁeld of Computational Linguistics, in spite of highly successful Hidden Markov (Chain) Models. In dependency trees, the independence assumptions made by HMTM correspond to the intuition of linguistic dependency. Therefore we suggest to use HMTM and tree-modiﬁed Viterbi algorithm for tasks interpretable as labeling nodes of dependency trees.
In this paper, we present a novel global reordering model that can be incorporated into standard phrase-based statistical machine translation. Unlike previous local reordering models that emphasize the reordering of adjacent phrase pairs (Tillmann and Zhang, 2005), our model explicitly models the reordering of long distances by directly estimating the parameters from the phrase alignments of bilingual training sentences.
Inspired by previous preprocessing approaches to SMT, this paper proposes a novel, probabilistic approach to reordering which combines the merits of syntax and phrase-based SMT. Given a source sentence and its parse tree, our method generates, by tree operations, an n-best list of reordered inputs, which are then fed to standard phrase-based decoder to produce the optimal translation. Experiments show that, for the NIST MT-05 task of Chinese-toEnglish translation, the proposal leads to BLEU improvement of 1.56%. ...