The Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills (APPM) is one of the largest integrated pulp and paper manufacturers in India and has done
pioneering work in several areas in the Pulp and Paper industry in India. The Company holds ISO 14001, ISO 9001 & OHSAS
18001 certifications as well as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Chain of Custody (COC) Certification.
The company owns and operates two manufacturing units located in Andhra Pradesh: one at Rajahmundry and another at
The presence of chlorine in alternative fuels (e.g., sewage sludge, municipal solid waste
or incineration ash, chlorinated biomass,) has both direct and indirect implications on
cement kiln emissions and performance. Methods have been developed to properly
manage chlorine and its potential implications – but it is important that these implications
be recognized and managed. Trace levels of chlorine in feed materials can lead to the
formation of acidic gases such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF)
However, China’s industry is dependent on non-wood fibers (largely agricultural
residues) at a 3:1 ratio over wood fiber. This suggests a concentration of many smaller
operations. In fact, China’s rapid agricultural growth since 1978 provided fiber for
eight-fold growth in the production of smaller papermills between 1984 and 1992
(CTAPI (1993)). The smaller mills have been rapid innovators, but they remain
especially environmentally intrusive. They are dependent on pollution control
technologies that are not as effective for non-wood fibers.
When revealing many such cause-effect relations and hidden phenomena, hand-held
instrumentation gives additional references for existing basic measurements such as pH,
conductivity, and redox potential. This work also took in use measurements which have not
been traditionally used in papermaking such as measurement of halogens, dissolved calcium,
and dissolved oxygen contents. ATP content measurement using a portable luminometer was
found to be useful and easy-to-use method for evaluating microbial activity and optimizing
biocide performance at paper mills.
Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics [...].
The extent of pollution and toxicity depends upon the raw material used, pulping method,
and pulp bleaching process adapted by the pulp and paper mills. For example, the pollution load
from hardwood is lower than softwood. On the other hand, the spent liquor generated from
pulping of nonwood ﬁber has a high silica content. Volumes of wastewater discharged may vary
from near zero to 400 m3
per ton of pulp depending on the raw material used, manufacturing
process, and size of the mill .
The semichemical process SAICA (Lora & Escudero 2000) and chemi-
mechanical Bivis process (Westenbroek & van Roekel 1996, Roberts 2000,
Westenbroek 2004) have also been used for mill-scale non-wood pulp
production. The chemical consumption of these processes is lower than in
chemical processes, nevertheless the spent liquor must be incinerated or treated
biologically. Some mills in China have used the neutral sulphite semichemical
(NSSC) process (Nassar 2004, Savcor Indufor 2006, Pöyry 2006) for
The case studies included in this discussion paper are part of a project that
Resources for the Future (RFF) is conducting under a cooperative agreement with the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and with general support from RFF. The
case studies were originally vetted as RFF Discussion Paper 97-08 in 1996, and this
revised version of the discussion paper reflects many useful comments and corrections
supplied by reviewers.
The three typologies presented above are, as stated in section 1, intended as more
appropriate generalisations to supersede the “stylised fallacies” which appear to play a
continuing role in the design and priorities of rural development policy, both at the national
and the EU level. This being the case it is appropriate to conclude this working paper with
some tentative consideration of policy implications.
Based on a review of the current performance values for Alberta mills, other Canadian
mills, and top performing mills in the U.S. and to allow sufficient flexibility for plant
operations during shutdown, start-up and upset conditions, Alberta’s standards for colour
are a monthly average of 50 kg/ADt and a daily maximum of 100 kg/ADt for both new
and existing mills. The values may be applied at approval renewal for existing pulp and
paper mills, and applied directly to any new mills.
An important barrier to quick process changes is the industry’s
slow capital-turnover rate. A survey in 1997/8 revealed that the median age of paper ma-
chines in Europe was 23 years (Berkhout, 2005). Recent research undertaken in the USA
suggests a potential negative correlation between environmental innovation and sunk
costs. The research suggests that no matter what the regulator does, because there will be
much lobbying and negotiations undertaken as a part of the permitting process, regula-
tors tend to favour existing actors over potential new entrants.
This paper examines how the eﬀort choices of workers within the same ﬁrm interact with
each other, and how this interaction depends on the technology of production. In contrast
to the existing literature, we focus on showing how the eﬀort choice of one worker can
aﬀect the eﬀort choices of his co-workers based purely on income-maximizing considera-
tions, rather than relying on behavioral explanations such as peer pressure, shame, etc.
Despite this disparity in the quantity of environmental releases, dioxins and
furans have dominated the debate over regulatory controls of the effluents from pulp and
paper plants that use chlorine bleaching because chlorinated phenols and volatile
organochlorines are estimated to be very much less toxic.
This paper examines the pollution control policies applied in China’s paper industry during the period of economic reform from 1982 to 1992. The paper industry is the source of ten percent of China’s industrial wastewater emissions and one fourth of its chemical oxygen demand. It is the largest source of rural environmental pollution. The very small size of china’s mills is comparable to that of papermills in many developing countries and this small size itself creates an interesting problem.
Packaging must consist of readily recyclable material, and/or materials
taken from renewable resources, or be a multi-use system, i.e. reusable.
All packaging materials shall be easily separable by hand into recyclable
parts consisting of one material (e.g. cardboard, paper, plastic, textile).
Verification: A description of the product packaging shall be provided
together with a corresponding declaration of compliance with these
criteria. Proof should be provided in compliance with BS EN 13430 on
recyclability or BS EN 13429 on reusability, or equivalent. ...
Technology-based standards are designed to facilitate the use of known, effective,
demonstrated pollution prevention and control technologies. The release standards for
new and existing pulp mills in Alberta were adopted after evaluation of technologies and
wastewater treatment systems for Alberta pulp and paper mills, and top performing mills
throughout the United States and Europe (see Appendix 1). The data for European mills
are performance expectations and do not represent the regulatory standards that may be
In each process, the corn is cleaned before it enters the mill. In the dry mill,
the milling step consists of grinding the corn and adding water to form the
mash. In the wet mill, milling and processing are more elaborate because
the grain must be separated into its components. First, the corn is steeped in
a solution of water and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to loosen the germ and hull
fiber. This 30- to 40-hour extra soaking step requires additional tanks that
contribute to the higher construction costs. Then the germ is removed from
the kernel, and corn oil is extracted from the germ.
This paper is an analysis of materials taken from the excavation site of the Villa
Bottaro. The first chapter will provide the background of the ancient villa using the
excavation reports and other documents to examine the archaeological site and the
objects excavated. Chapter 2 is a review of the traditional understanding of the Third
and Fourth Styles of Pompeian wall painting developed by the art historian August
Mau. Chapter 3 brings forward the recent scholarship that questions the relevance of
Mau's chronological system. ...
This paper uses sequential stochastic dominance procedures to compare the joint
distribution of health and income across space and time. It is the first application of
which we are aware of methods to compare multidimensional distributions of income
and health using procedures that are robust to aggregation techniques. The paper’s
approach is more general than comparisons of health gradients and does not require the
estimation of health equivalent incomes. We illustrate the approach by contrasting
Canada and the US using comparable data.