The epidemiology of infectious diseases is one of the great triumphs of applied
ecology. In particular, the public health importance of parasites has
lead to a large literature, exploring their impact on the population dynamics,
population genetics and evolutionary biology of human populations. An
important milestone was the Dahlem Conference on population biology of infectious
diseases, held in 1981. The resulting book (Anderson and May 1982)
lucidly summarised the contemporary state of parasite ecology and epidemiology.
Dualism is a dominant theory of life that considers
reality to be a balance between two independent and
fundamental principles: good and evil, mind and
matter, nature and nurture. In the same manner we
see the thread of dualism run through the ecology of
parasitism: they can generate diversity but cause
extinction, they may castrate a host but increase its
growth rate, and they can stimulate an immune
response but at the same time encourage a secondary
Virtually every organism serves as the host for a complement of parasites.
Parasitism is so common that it is rare to find classes of animals without
members that have adopted a parasitic mode of living. Evidence gained from
various archeological studies indicates that parasitic diseases existed in
prehistoric human populations. Since there is no evidence to suggest that
our long and intimate association with parasites will ever end, it seems
reasonable to propose that the study of human parasites warrants some
From HIV to influenza, the battle between infectious agents and the immune system is at the heart of disease. Knowledge of how and why parasites vary to escape recognition by the immune system is central to vaccine design, the control of epidemics, and our fundamental understanding of parasite ecology and evolution. As the first comprehensive synthesis of parasite variation at the molecular, population, and evolutionary levels, this book is essential reading for students and researchers throughout biology and biomedicine....
Bank of America Merrill Lynch operates an active carbon market
services business that provides risk management, market access
and liquidity, and structured finance to a variety of corporate
clients looking to offset carbon emissions or manage their
In 2008, we engineered a ground-breaking transaction to
preserve a 750,000-hectare refuge in the Aceh province of
Indonesia, an ecologically sensitive region recovering from the
Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004.
Chapter 54 - Community ecology. This chapter distinguish between the following sets of terms: competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis; fundamental and realized niche; cryptic and aposematic coloration; batesian mimicry and Müllerian mimicry; parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism; endoparasites and ectoparasites; species richness and relative abundance; food chain and food web; primary and secondary succession;....
Sea Lamprey Objectives
Reduce sea lamprey abundance to allow the achievement of other fish community objectives.
Obtain a 75% reduction in parasitic sea lampreys by the year 2000 and a 90% reduction by the
Species Diversity Objective
Recognize and protect the array of other indigenous fish species because they contribute to the
richness of the fish community. These fish – cyprinids, rare ciscoes, suckers, burbot, gar, and
sculpins- are important because of their ecological significance; intrinsic value; and social,
cultural, and economic benefits.
Reporting that rare
species are more abundant on larger islands, they make the case for greater
conservation efforts on larger islands. In the next chapter, Hugo Mejía-Madrid
evaluates the roles of heterochrony and ecological fitting in the evolution of helminth
fish parasites. Contrary to expectations, helminth speciation lags substantially behind
that of their hosts, tending to occur in pulses associated with continent jumps among
hosts. Next in this section, Toshiharu Mita et al.