Parasitic protozoa

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  • This is a new and fully revised edition of Jeffrey and Leach: Atlas of Medical Helminthology and Protozoology . Helminths (worms) and similar parasites are a major medical problem in much of the world and perhaps the largest single cause of morbidity and mortality (eg malaria, elephantiasis, trypanosmiasis). The diagnosis of these conditions still largely rests on the microscopic examination of, for example, faeces. This atlas illustrates the different myriad of different organisms and how to identify them. The atlas covers all helminths and protozoa of medical importance.

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  • Proteins are the driving force for all cellular processes. They regulate several cellular events through binding to different partners in the cell. They are capable of binding to other proteins, peptides, DNA, and also RNA. These interactions are essential in the regulation of cell fates and could be important in drugs development. For example RNA interacting proteins regulate gene expression through the binding to different mRNAs. These mRNAs could be involved in important cellular processes such as cell survival or apoptosis.

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  • Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi; EC is a key activity of the pen-tose phosphate pathway. Two unrelated types of sequence⁄structure possess this activity: type A Rpi (present in most organisms) and type B Rpi (RpiB) (in some bacteria and parasitic protozoa).

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  • Methioninec-lyase (MGL) (EC, which is present in certain lin-eages of bacteria, plants, and protozoa but missing in mammals, catalyzes the single-step degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) to a-keto acids, ammonia, and thiol compounds.

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  • Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important components of all cAMP signalling networks. In humans, 11 different PDE families have been identified to date, all of which belong to the class I PDEs. Pharmaco-logically, theyhavebecome of great interest as targets for the development of drugs for a large variety of clinical condi-tions. PDEs in parasitic protozoa have not yet been exten-sively investigated, despite their potential as antiparasitic drug targets.

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  • ATP-regenerating enzymes may have an important role in maintaining ATP levels in mitochondria-like kinetoplast organelle and glycosomes in parasitic protozoa. Adenylate kinase (AK) (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase) catalyses the reversible transfer of thec-phosphate group from ATP to AMP, releasing twomolecules ofADP. This study describes cloningand functional characterizationof the gene encoding AK2fromagenomic libraryofLeishmaniadonovaniandalso its expression in leishmania promastigote cultures.

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  • A need for a book on immunology which primarily focuses on the needs of medical and clinical research students was recognized. This book is relatively short and contains topics considered relevant to the understanding of human immune system and its role in health and diseases. Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them. These invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites.

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  • Infection is a major category of human disease and skilled management of antimicrobial drugs is of the first importance.The term chemotherapy is used for the drug treatment of parasitic infections in which the parasites (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, worms) are destroyed or removed without injuring the hostThe use of the term to cover all drug or synthetic drug therapy needlessly removes a distinction which is convenient to the clinician and has the sanction of long usage.

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  • Papain-like cysteine proteases of pathogenic protozoa play important roles in parasite growth, differentiation and host cell invasion. The main cysteine proteases of Trypanosoma cruzi(cruzipain) and of Trypanosoma brucei (brucipain) are validated targets for the development of new chemothera-pies.

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