The inner magnetosphere is an important region of space plasma because it is one of
the “kitchens” for space weather effects. The scientific understanding of this region
is important for predicting the interaction between space environmental conditions
and human activities.
The inner magnetospheric plasma is a unique composition of different plasma
particles and waves. It covers a huge plasma energy range with spatial and time
variations of many orders of magnitude.
A measurement of the underlying event (UE) activity
in proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy
of 7 TeV is performed using Drell–Yan events in a data sample
corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb−1,
collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The activity
measured in the muonic final state (qq → μ
−) is corrected
to the particle level and compared with the predictions
of various Monte Carlo generators and hadronization
Lab 4 - Field & collision effect. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: What is field? How to add dynamic field? Work with fields, what is collision effect? Make collide? Make particle collision events, creating waterfalls, rain on car.
The word soliton was coined in 1965 to describe the particle-like properties of pulses propagating in a nonlinear medium . The pulse envelope for solitons not only propagates undistorted but also survives collisions just as particles do. The existence of solitons in optical ﬁbers and their use for optical communications were suggested in 1973 , and by 1980 solitons had been observed experimentally .
Broadmeadow and Freer-Smith (1996) described three methods of particular
deposition: sedimentation; precipitation and impaction. Sedimentation and
precipitation occur due to gravity and collision with rain droplets respectively, and are
unaffected by vegetation. Impaction occurs when a laminar air stream is disrupted as
it passes the aerodynamically rough plant surfaces, while the particle continues in a
straight line and strikes the obstacle, either through direct interception or electrostatic