The Particle Image Velocimetry is undoubtedly one of the most important technique in
Fluid-dynamics since it has a spatial character that allows to obtain a direct and
instantaneous visualization of the flow field in a non-intrusive way. It represents the
point of arrival of an intense research on the laser techniques and its origin dates back
at the beginning of 80’s when Meynart, a doctoral student of the Von Karman Institute,
while explorying the Laser Speckle Velocimetry technique, guessed the importance of
capturing the movements of individual particles instead of speckles.
The book begins with a review of three-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).
PIV has become a standard technique over recent decades, and is useful for studies in
which an optically clear fluid can be seeded with small, neutrally buoyant particles.
Applications have included shipping and aircraft design, and simulation of
cardiovascular flow dynamics.
An effective separation method of very pure binder fraction to assess radiocarbon dating is
proposed in the present contribution. The elimination of contaminant error sources and the
suitable selection of mortar samples enable the reliable dating. Petrographic analysis under
polarizing light microscopy is used to identify different mineralogical phases of mortar
samples, aggregate nature, and the limestone fragment remains.
Thin sections and polished sections of the mortars were prepared in an impregnation unit
under vacuum with an epoxy resin. These were polished with 15 μm Al2O3 abrasive and
the final lapping was performed with diamond pastes (15–1 μm). Thin-sections were
analysed by light polarized microscopy using a petrographic polarizing Olympus BH2
microscope equipped with an Olympus DP-10 digital camera.