Particle inhalability

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  • The development of a respiratory tract model which accurately reflects reality is a difficult and complicated effort. This stems largely from the variety of airway shapes, airflow patterns, and cell types having different radiosensitivities. Anatomic and physiologic alterations in smokers or those exposed to chemicals, among others, further complicate modeling. In spite of the inherent difficulties, the continuing pursuit of a model that mimics actual conditions has been considered to be important by those involved in radiation protection....

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1

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  • This contribution book collects reviews and original articles from eminent experts working in the interdisciplinary arena of novel drug delivery systems and their uses. From their direct and recent experience, the readers can achieve a wide vision on the new and ongoing potentialities of different drug delivery systems. Since the advent of analytical techniques and capabilities to measure particle sizes in nanometer ranges, there has been tremendous interest in the use of nanoparticles for more efficient methods of drug delivery.

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  • The infectiousness of a TB patient is directly related to the number of droplet nuclei carrying M. tuberculosis (tubercle bacilli) that are expelled into the air. Depending on the environment, these tiny particles can remain suspended in the air for several hours. M. tuberculosis is transmitted through the air, not by surface contact. Infection occurs when a person inhales droplet nuclei containing M. tuberculosis, and the droplet nuclei traverse the mouth or nasal passages, upper respiratory tract, and bronchi to reach the alveoli of the lungs.

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  • Such a comprehensive model allows for the modeled deposition of submicrometer aerosols (nanosized particles and particulate matter sizes larger that nano to determine the total deposition as well as localized deposition of particles). The results are important, prospectively, since they may lead to a better understanding of the developmental respiratory physiology and the associated effects on children’s health response to environmental pollutants, or the medical outcome from inhalation therapy for infants and children from nanoparticlecontaining medicines.

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  • Although the part of our bodies most affected by air pollution is the respiratory system, the circulatory system can also be affected. Exposure to unhealthy levels of air pollutants can result in low oxygen levels in red blood cells, abnormal heart rhythms, and increased risks of blood clots and narrowing of blood vessels. These effects can lead to worsening of heart diseases such as heart failure and increased risks of heart attacks or strokes. The Pollutants Chart: Sources and Effects of Air Pollutants summarize the sources and health effects of criteria air pollutants.

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  • In order to provide comparable estimates of exposure to outdoor air pollution for all 14 WHO regions, models developed by the World Bank were used to estimate concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10) (Pandey et al., 2004). Specifically, economic, meteorologic, and demographic data and available PM measurements in 304 cities were used to estimate PM10 levels in all 3211 cities worldwide with populations greater than 100,000 and capital cities.

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  • Particles, as noted above, can provide an exposure pathway for SVOCs, but they also can present a serious health risk on their own. They range in size from very small (0.001 μm to 10 μm), which can remain in the air for a long time, up to relatively large (100 μm), which quickly settle out of calm air. Inhaling particulates can cause eye, nose, and throat irritation and can increase the risk for respiratory infections. Health care professionals are especially concerned about the long-term effects of inhaling ultrafine particles (less than 2.

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  • The thought of mucus disturbs many people. Mucus is beneficial as the first defense of the airways. The mucus lining traps inhaled particles and allows them to be cleared from the airway by cilia and cough. The mucus layer also prevents dehydration and desiccation of the airway surface and provides a nutrient milieu for the ciliated epithelium. Mucus can also be quite bad. Airway mucus retention due to hypersecretion or poor mucus clearance is a characteristic of many airway diseases including cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and asthma.

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  • Other studies, primarily with laboratory animals, suggest that the chemical composition5 and surface areas of the particles may be more important than particle mass. Scientists are continuing to study the health effects of particles and are developing better methods for measuring the important constituents. It may be possible in the near future to more accurately assess the effects of inhaled particles on human health. Nitrogen Oxides Nitrogen oxides are produced during most combustion processes. Mobile sources and power plants are the major contributors in Southern California.

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  • M. tuberculosis is carried in airborne particles, called droplet nuclei, of 1–5 microns in diameter. Infectious droplet nuclei are generated when persons who have pulmonary or laryngeal TB disease cough, sneeze, shout, or sing. Depending on the environment, these tiny particles can remain suspended in the air for several hours. M. tuberculosis is transmitted through the air, not by surface contact. Transmission occurs when a person inhales droplet nuclei containing M.

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  • Thus, ultrafine dusts of the same dimensions as nanoparticles mainly penetrate the body via inhalation and are deposited in the lungs. A portion of these dusts can be distributed directly to the brain via the olfactory nerves. The lungs do not necessarily succeed in totally eliminating these undesirable particles, which then cause pulmonary inflammation. This can lead to the development of lung diseases specific to the nature of the dusts that caused them.

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