Ending the Affair examines the state of short form1 television current
affairs in Australia today, questioning its future while drawing lessons
from the past. The research project from which this book emerged was a
history of television current affairs formats in Australia. Funded by the
Australian Research Council, its original motivation was to understand the
significance of the changes that had occurred in these television formats
and their function, particularly since the network upheavals of the late
Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on
children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development
and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summa-
rize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the positive effects of media
and minimizing the negative effects.
One focus of the authors is the seemingly unique effect of television on children under age two.
“However, the Rockefeller Foundation argues that these traditional approaches to
communication are generally insufficient in addressing the reality of the development
problems that exist, as they do not always reflect the complex changes in the
communications environments taking place in many developing country societies:
“Communication can play a much greater role in enabling people to take control over
their own lives, in enabling people and societies to set their own agendas in relation
to political, economic and social development; and in enabling, in particular, the
voices of the ...
The idea of the role of various ICTs to communicate information was further developed in
the follow-up research (R8347), in which respondents were asked to rank the importance
of types of information pertinent to rural livelihoods. It can be seen from Table 7 and
Table 8 that there is a great deal of similarity in the types of information regarded as most
important in both countries. Note that priority information needs tend to relate to social
Note that figures presented in Table 6 are higher than those in Table 7 and Table 8
because they are compiled from multiple responses (people could tick as many boxes as
appropriate), whereas figures from Tanzania and Mozambique represent the most
commonly used channel (people could only tick one box). Nevertheless, these figures
confirm that TV currently plays a significant role in information communication to rural
areas, particularly weather and news.
Accordingly, the Government has been considering the feasibility of getting local
TV services on to the non-DTT platforms and has held discussions with these
providers. The costs associated with broadcasting on the satellite platform in
particular are likely to be prohibitive to most local TV service providers, primarily
due to the high cost of transponder capacity that would be required in each
location. In addition, the degree of localness that can be provided largely
mirrors the current regional television structure rather than a specifically local
Idiom - A group of words (or a single word) which have a meaning that is not understood by combining the standard definitions of the individual words (though that meaning may sometimes be inferred). Idioms are a style or form of (often artistic) expression, characteristic of a particular language, group, subculture, school of thought, generation, or medium (for example, movies and television). Idioms can convey that the current situation being described has a resemblance with past history, and in that sense they may be similar to analogies or metaphors.
Above-the-line campaign: a marketing campaign using only advertising. Account: the term used to describe a client or job. In consultancies, “an account team” refers to the group of PR consultants servicing a particular client. Below-the-line campaign: a marketing communications campaign that does not use advertising. Instead it uses promotional tools such as public relations, direct marketing and sales promotion. Brief: the instructions from a client to a consultancy, or directions communicated within a PR agency.
The basis of all business is buying and selling goods or services or a combination
of the two. The word product is these days used for both goods and services.
A television is a product and a particular type of insurance scheme may be
described by the provider as a product. For the purposes of this Report the word
product will be used in the former sense. Products are designed and produced
and sold to customers as end items in themselves.
With youth, marketers have tapped into an audience that is particularly vulnerable to the
messages and tactics of the food and beverage industry. For many low-income youth, there is
little time or money for structured, healthy meals in the presence of an adult. Marketers have
capitalized on this situation by using a number of marketing channels to reach children and
adolescents. These span television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements in
movies and television programs, kids’ clubs, the Internet, toys...
Football is by far the world’s most popular game. Millions
play the game and hundreds of millions are entertained by
it, either at football grounds or through television. Despite
this the scientiﬁc aspects of the game have hardly been recog-
nised, let alone discussed and analysed. This is in contrast to
some other games which have received much more attention,
particularly so in the case of golf.
In January 1954, Billboard, the leading US music and entertainment journal,
reported on an exclusive contract between the American record company
Tempo Records and the government-owned radio station in Afghanistan,
Radio Kabul. The contract guaranteed exclusive recording rights in
Afghanistan. During a five-month trip around India, Pakistan and Afghanistan,
Irving Fogel, President of Tempo Records at the time, collected original
Anytime user-supplied data is collected and redistributed for mass consumption online or via mainstream media, there
is a risk that the content could be malicious or abusive. Spam, derogatory comments, pornography, or various forms
of malware are all common examples. Moderators are typically present in online message boards, chatrooms, mailing
list, etc. to remove any offensive material. On T.V. the familiar sound bleeps and blackout blocks provide roughly the
With respect to children over two, the authors emphasize the importance of content in mediat-
ing the effect of television on cognitive skills and academic achievement. Early exposure to age-
appropriate programs designed around an educational curriculum is associated with cognitive
and academic enhancement, whereas exposure to pure entertainment, and violent content in
particular, is associated with poorer cognitive development and lower academic achievement.
Firms operating in the television industry lie at the interface between two
markets. In the ﬁrst one, they sell their audience and part of their broad-
casting time to advertising companies (the advertising market). In the second
they compete for increasing the size of their audiences by proposing attrac-
tive program-mixes to TV-viewers (the audience market). Two major links
make these markets tightly interrelated.
One of the challenges for this study is the breadth of application of the subject matter.
Given the DFID focus on poverty, and the countries included in the study, the general
benchmark here is rural Africa. If some particular form or shape of community television
could be found to be relevant to rural Africa, and it was an affordable and realistic option,
it is likely that community television could be applied to other locations of the poor such
as rural Asia and South America, and impoverished urban areas.
The behaviour, values and beliefs of parents, families/whānau and other
members of their community have a powerful influence on young people’s
developing attitudes to drugs. Young people are also influenced by the messages
they receive from the media and marketing campaigns. Pop culture, music and
music videos, online media and electronic messaging services, television and
advertisements can all portray powerful, positive, glamorous images of drug use.