Particulate material

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  • This report was greatly enhanced by input from participants at the workshop and public committee meetings held as part of this study: Ludmilla Aristilde, E. Scott Bair, Anthony R. Berger, Gor- don E. Brown, Jr., Herbert T. Buxton, Margaret Cavanaugh, Rachael Craig, Ellen Marie Douglas, Barbara L. Dutrow, Jonathan E. Ericson, Rodney C. Ewing, Robert B. Finkelman, Charles P. Gerba, Charles G. Groat, Linda C.S. Gundersen, Mickey Gunter, Stephen C. Guptill, John A. Haynes, Ri- chard J. Jackson, Michael Jerrett, K. Bruce Jones, Ann Marie Kimball, P. Patrick Leahy, Louise S.

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  • As early as the beginning of the 20th century Rudolf Diesel proposed vegetable oil as fuel for his engine.1 A short time later, before and during World War Two, vegetable oil was examined in “up-to-date” diesel engines. In 1940 first trials with vegetable oil methyl and ethyl esters were carried out in France and, at the same time, scientists in Belgium were using palm oil ethyl ester as a fuel for buses.2 In 1973, the oil crisis refocused attention on and interest for local energy sources.

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  • Industrial emissions can be a significant source of particulate emissions in urban areas. The contribution that this source makes to ambient particulate material will vary depending on the location of the industry and the abatement technology adopted. Although many studies have been conducted to characterise emissions from large industrial sources, for example steel works, information on small urban emitters, for example metallurgical processes and small factories, is more limited. Particles emitted from industrial sources have been found to be in the size range 0.

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  • Both direct emission from fires and ash resuspension from burnt soils could be an important source of airborne PM10. This pyrogenic material, which is composed of organic matter, black carbon and inorganic material, is to a large extent present in the size range below 10 µm and so can be resuspended by wind [17]. Although the contribution to ambient aerosol from fire smoke will generally be episodic, in areas where there is a constant forest burning, the particulate emission from this source could be significant.

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  • A new and increasing responsibility of furnace designers and operators is to provide controls for toxic, combustible, or particulate materials in furnace flue gases, to meet federal or local standards for air quality.

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  • In Austria, particulate matter is measured in agreement with national legislation as Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) at more than 110 sites, whereas PM10 measurements are not yet available. It was assumed that ambient air TSP levels can be attributed to the contribution of local sources and regional background concentrations. Both of them were modelled separately. The starting point for the modelling of local contributions was the availability of a spatially disaggregated emission inventory for nitrogen oxides (NOx).

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  • Porogen leaching is one of the most common methods used for preparation of scaffolds with controlled porosity. The particulate leaching method is totally based upon the dispersion of porogen (salt, sugar and wax) either in liquid particulates or powdered materials (Hou et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2004, Nazarov et al., 2004 Vepari & Kaplan, 2007) by the process of evaporation, cross linking or other reaction liquid may be solidified. These porogens act as place holder for pore and interconnection of the pores in the actual scaffolds fabrication technique.

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  • In 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Mexico s Petr leos Mexicanos (PEMEX) began sponsoring this project to characterize the nature and sources of suspended particulate matter found in the ambient air in Mexico City. This collaborative effort follows another program sponsored by DOE and PEMEX in the early 1990 s to study gas phase pollutants and photochemical oxidants in the Valle de Mexico. 3,4 The high altitude, the year- round sunshine, and the complex atmospheric chemistry characteristic of Mexico City create a challenging laboratory for scientific research.

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  • Sorption is a process by which chemicals or organisms become attached to soils and/or the geologic rock material (aquifer solids) and removed from the water. Often the sorption process is reversible and solutes desorb and hence dissolved-solute plumes are retarded, rather than solutes being permanently retained by the solids. Cation exchange is the interchange between cations in solution and cations on the surfaces of clay particles or organic colloids. Filtration is a process that affects particulate contaminants (e.g.

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  • Paso del Norte’s growth has had serious environmental consequences, particularly for air quality, which is the worst on the U.S.–Mexico border. Ciudad Juárez exceeds national ambient air quality standards (official norms) for ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), and El Paso exceeds national ambient air quality standards for ozone, PM10, and carbon monoxide. An overwhelming body of evidence links such air pollution to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and to premature mortality (U.S. EPA 1999).

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  • A source of airborne particulate matter that cannot be neglected is the injection of windblown natural dust into the atmosphere in sand and dust storms common during windy conditions in the world’s deserts. In the northwestern Mediterranean region, the input of Saharan material, known locally as red rains, has been estimated as 3.9 million of tonnes each year [22]. In some parts of the Mediterranean basin, it is thought that this makes a substantial contribution to local airborne particulate matter.

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  • Primary pollutants are those in which the substance emitted is itself hazardous. Some primary pollutants also produce other dangerous substances after undergoing chemical reactions in the atmosphere, and these are known as secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants include the following substances. Particulates This includes dust, smoke, aerosols and haze - any finely divided airborne solid material.

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  • Field data are being integrated into well-developed and tested models to better understand and characterize aerosol pollution in Mexico City. The spatial, temporal, size, and chemical characteristics of specific emissions sources are needed to allow their contributions to PM concentrations to be distinguished from each other and to provide accurate inputs to air quality models.

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  • Pollution prevention. IPPC presumes the use of preventative techniques before any consideration of end-of-pipe control techniques. Many pollution prevention techniques can be applied to LVOC processes and Section 5.2 describes them in terms of source reduction (preventing waste arisings by modifications to products, input materials, equipment and procedures), recycling and waste minimisation initiatives. Air pollutant control.

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